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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flame Dynamics Intermittency in the Bistable Region Near a Subcritical Hopf Bifurcation

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Ebi

Laboratory for Thermal Processes
and Combustion,
Paul Scherrer Institute,
Villigen 5232, Switzerland
e-mail: dominik.ebi@psi.ch

A. Denisov

Institute of Thermal and Fluid Engineering,
School of Engineering Hochschule für
Technik FHNW,
Windisch 5210, Switzerland
e-mail: alexey.denisov@fhnw.ch

G. Bonciolini

CAPS Laboratory,
Mechanical and Process
Engineering Department,
ETH Zürich, Zürich 8092, Switzerland

E. Boujo

CAPS Laboratory,
Mechanical and Process
Engineering Department,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich 8092, Switzerland

N. Noiray

CAPS Laboratory,
Mechanical and Process
Engineering Department,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: noirayn@ethz.ch

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 10, 2017; final manuscript received August 28, 2017; published online January 17, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(6), 061504 (Jan 17, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1450; doi: 10.1115/1.4038326 History: Received August 10, 2017; Revised August 28, 2017

We report experimental evidence of thermoacoustic bistability in a lab-scale turbulent combustor over a well-defined range of fuel–air equivalence ratios. Pressure oscillations are characterized by an intermittent behavior with “bursts,” i.e., sudden jumps between low and high amplitudes occurring at random time instants. The corresponding probability density functions (PDFs) of the acoustic pressure signal show clearly separated maxima when the burner is operated in the bistable region. The gain and phase between acoustic pressure and heat release rate fluctuations are evaluated at the modal frequency from simultaneously recorded flame chemiluminescence and acoustic pressure. The representation of the corresponding statistics is new and particularly informative. It shows that the system is characterized, in average, by a nearly constant gain and by a drift of the phase as function of the oscillation amplitude. This finding may suggest that the bistability does not result from an amplitude-dependent balance between flame gain and acoustic damping, but rather from the nonconstant phase difference between the acoustic pressure and the coherent fluctuations of heat release rate.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 3

(a) Three cycles of band-pass filtered high-amplitude oscillations of all four microphones. (b) Power spectral density of the acoustic pressure recorded with microphone three for different equivalence ratios. The focus of this study is the dominant mode at f ≃ 150 Hz.

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Fig. 4

Acoustic pressure signals (bottom) and PDFs (top; different y scales) for different equivalence ratios

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Fig. 5

Line-of-sight OH* chemiluminescence intensity at different phase angles. High-amplitude regime (ϕ = 0.595).

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the swirl combustor test rig including microphone locations relative to the burner inlet

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Fig. 1

Sketch of supercritical (left) and subcritical (right) Hopf bifurcations in a purely deterministic situation (without noise). Solid lines: stable fixed point (|p|=0) and stable limit cycle (|p|>0); dashed lines: unstable equilibrium states. Arrows illustrate how stable (resp. unstable) states are attractive (resp. repulsive).

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Fig. 6

Normalized flame response: integrated chemiluminescence intensity versus acoustic oscillation amplitude, for two different combustors. Left: T.U. Berlin combustor (adapted from Ref. [12]). Right: PSI combustor (present study) at operating condition ϕ = 0.598.

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Fig. 7

Joint PDF of normalized acoustic pressure amplitude Aac with gain G=|IOH*|/|p| (top row), and with phase θ=∠(IOH*,p) (bottom row), for different equivalence ratios. In the central row, as a reference, the marginal PDF for the acoustic amplitude P(Aac).

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