0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

First and Second Law Analysis of Radical Intercooling Concepts

[+] Author and Article Information
Oskar Thulin

Department of Mechanics
and Maritime Sciences,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg SE-41296, Sweden
e-mail: oskar.thulin@chalmers.se

Olivier Petit, Carlos Xisto, Xin Zhao

Department of Mechanics
and Maritime Sciences,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg SE-41296, Sweden

Tomas Grönstedt

Department of Mechanics
and Maritime Sciences,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg SE-41296, Sweden
e-mail: tomas.gronstedt@chalmers.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 14, 2017; final manuscript received August 31, 2017; published online May 18, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(8), 081201 (May 18, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1366; doi: 10.1115/1.4038364 History: Received July 14, 2017; Revised August 31, 2017

An exergy framework was developed taking into consideration a detailed analysis of the heat exchanger (HEX) (intercooler (IC)) component irreversibilities. Moreover, it was further extended to include an adequate formulation for closed systems, e.g., a secondary cycle (SC), moving with the aircraft. Afterward, the proposed framework was employed to study two radical intercooling concepts. The first proposed concept uses already available wetted surfaces, i.e., nacelle surfaces, to reject the core heat and contributes to an overall drag reduction. The second concept uses the rejected core heat to power a secondary organic Rankine cycle and produces useful power to the aircraft-engine system. Both radical concepts are integrated into a high bypass ratio (BPR) turbofan engine, with technology levels assumed to be available by year 2025. A reference intercooled cycle incorporating a HEX in the bypass (BP) duct is established for comparison. Results indicate that the radical intercooling concepts studied in this paper show similar performance levels to the reference cycle. This is mainly due to higher irreversibility rates created during the heat exchange process. A detailed assessment of the irreversibility contributors, including the considered HEXs and SC, is made. A striking strength of the present analysis is the assessment of the component-level irreversibility rate and its contribution to the overall aero-engine losses.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Grönstedt, T. , Irannezhad, M. , Xu, L. , Thulin, O. , and Lundbladh, A. , 2014, “ First and Second Law Analysis of Future Aircraft Engines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(3), p. 031202.
Zhao, X. , Thulin, O. , and Grönstedt, T. , 2015, “ First and Second Law Analysis of Intercooled Turbofan Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(2), p. 021202.
Kotas, T. J. , 1985, The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis, Butterworths, London.
Clarke, J. M. , and Horlock, J. H. , 1975, “ Availability and Propulsion,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 17(4), pp. 223–232. [CrossRef]
Evans, R. B. , 1969, “ A Proof that Essergy is the Only Consistent Measure of Potential Work,” Ph.D. thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/691899.pdf
Brilliant, H. M. , 1995, “ Second Law Analysis of Present and Future Turbine Engines,” AIAA Paper No. 95-3030.
Roth, B. , McDonald, R. , and Mavris, D. , 2000, “ A Method for Thermodynamic Work Potential Analysis of Aircraft Engines,” AIAA Paper No. 2002-3768.
Thulin, O. , Grönstedt, T. , and Rogero, J.-M. , 2015, “ A Mission Assessment of Aero Engine Losses,” 22nd International Symposium of Air Breathing Engines (ISABE), Phoenix, AZ, Oct. 25–30, ISABE Paper No. ISABE-2015-20121. http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/publication/229215-a-mission-assessment-of-aero-engine-losses
Thulin, O. , 2017, “ On the Analysis of Energy Efficient Aircraft Engines,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Applied Mechanics, Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Grieb, H. , 2004, Projektierung Von Turboflugtriebwerken, Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland. [CrossRef]
Samuelsson, S. , Kyprianidis, K. , and Grönstedt, T. , 2015, “ Consistent Conceptual Design and Performance Modeling of Aero Engines,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43331.
Kwan, P.-W. , Gillespie, D. R. H. , Stieger, R. D. , and Rolt, A. M. , 2011, “ Minimising Loss in a Heat Exchanger Installation for an Intercooled Turbofan Engine,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45814.
Kyprianidis, K. G. , Rolt, A. M. , and Grönstedt, T. , 2013, “ Multidisciplinary Analysis of a Geared Fan Intercooled Core Aero-Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(1), p. 011203. [CrossRef]
Zhao, X. , Grönstedt, T. , and Kyprianidis, K. , 2013, “ Assessment of the Performance Potential for a Two-Pass Cross Flow Intercooler for Aero Engine Applications,” 21st International Symposium for Air Breathing Engines (ISABE), Busan, South Korea, Sept. 9–13, ISABE Paper No. ISABE-2013-1215. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259009545_Assessment_of_the_performance_potential_for_a_two-pass_cross_flow_intercooler_for_aero_engine_applications
A'Barrow, C. , Carrotte, J. F. , Walker, A. D. , and Rolt, A. M. , 2012, “ Aerodynamic Performance of a Coolant Flow Off-Take Downstream of an Outlet Guide Vane,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(1), p. 011006. [CrossRef]
Zhao, X. , and Grönstedt, T. , 2015, “ Aero Engine Intercooling Optimization Using a Variable Flow Path,” 22nd International Symposium of Air Breathing Engines (ISABE), Phoenix, AZ, Oct. 25–30, ISABE Paper No. ISABE-2015-20018. http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/225382/local_225382.pdf
Petit, O. , Xisto, C. , Zhao, X. , and Grönstedt, T. , 2016, “ An Outlook for Radical Aero Engine Intercooler Concepts,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57920.
Kramer, B. , Smith, B. , Heid, J. , Noffz, G. , Richwine, D. , and Ng, T. , 1999, “ Drag Reduction Experiments Using Boundary Layer Heating,” AIAA Paper No. 99-0134.
ESDU International plc, 1981, “ Drag of Axisymmetric Cowls at Zero Incidence for Subsonic Mach Numbers,” ESDU International plc, London.
Perullo, C. A. , Mavris, D. N. , and Fonseca, E. , 2013, “ An Integrated Assessment of an Organic Rankine Cycle Concept for Use in Onboard Aircraft Power Generation,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95734.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Temperature-entropy diagram for an intercooled core cycle compared to a conventional turbofan equivalent. Both cycles are represented as ideal. 1–2 corresponds to the compression process; 2–3 represents constant pressure combustion; 3–4 corresponds to expansion; and 1a and 1b represents the intercooling process at constant pressure. Primed stage numbers correspond to the postintercooling stages of the conventional counterparts.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Exergy applied to the reference frame of the engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Heat exchanger control volume considerations. Above: the dashed lines represent the bulk temperatures for the hot and cold sides. The solid line represents the actual temperature profile and that the heat is losing quality over the boundary layer. Below: possible control volume considerations (using different line styles) that either enclose the full heat exchange, treat fluid and wall separately or alternatively split the hot and cold side in the middle of the wall.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Intercooler installation options. Upper side: nacelle intercooler concept. Bottom side: Two-pass cross-flow intercooler with separated variable area exhaust nozzle.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Intercooling using bypass heat rejection, cruise point analysis: (a) irreversibility breakdown and (b) exergy breakdown (in percentage of exergy provided in the fuel)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Intercooling using nacelle heat rejection, cruise point analysis: (a) irreversibility breakdown and (b) exergy breakdown (in percentage of exergy provided in the fuel)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Basic concept for recovery of rejected intercooler heat using a secondary cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Intercooling using a secondary cycle heat rejection, cruise point analysis: (a) irreversibility breakdown and (b) exergy breakdown (in percentage of exergy provided in the fuel)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Intercooling irreversibility breakdown obtained at cruise point for the three different heat rejection concepts (a) intercooling overview and (b) secondary cycle (in percentage of exergy provided in the fuel)

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In