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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Catalytic Influence of Water Vapor on Lean Blow-Off and NOx Reduction for Pressurized Swirling Syngas Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Pugh

Gas Turbine Research Centre,
Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Wales CF24 3AA, UK
e-mail: pughdg@cardiff.ac.uk

Philip Bowen, Andrew Crayford, Steven Morris, Anthony Giles

Gas Turbine Research Centre,
Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Wales CF24 3AA, UK

Richard Marsh, Jon Runyon

Mem. ASME
Gas Turbine Research Centre,
Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Wales CF24 3AA, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 28, 2017; final manuscript received August 30, 2017; published online January 17, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(6), 061502 (Jan 17, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1408; doi: 10.1115/1.4038417 History: Received July 28, 2017; Revised August 30, 2017

It has become increasingly cost-effective for the steel industry to invest in the capture of heavily carbonaceous basic oxygen furnace or converter gas, and use it to support the intensive energy demands of the integrated facility, or for surplus energy conversion in power plants. As industry strives for greater efficiency via ever more complex technologies, increased attention is being paid to investigate the complex behavior of by-product syngases. Recent studies have described and evidenced the enhancement of fundamental combustion parameters such as laminar flame speed due to the catalytic influence of H2O on heavily carbonaceous syngas mixtures. Direct formation of CO2 from CO is slow due to its high activation energy, and the presence of disassociated radical hydrogen facilitates chain branching species (such as OH), changing the dominant path for oxidation. The observed catalytic effect is nonmonotonic, with the reduction in flame temperature eventually prevailing, and overall reaction rate quenched. The potential benefits of changes in water loading are explored in terms of delayed lean blow-off (LBO), and primary emission reduction in a premixed turbulent swirling flame, scaled for practical relevance at conditions of elevated temperature (423 K) and pressure (0.1–0.3 MPa). Chemical kinetic models are used initially to characterize the influence that H2O has on the burning characteristics of the fuel blend employed, modeling laminar flame speed and extinction strain rate across an experimental range with H2O vapor fraction increased to eventually diminish the catalytic effect. These modeled predictions are used as a foundation to investigate the experimental flame. OH* chemiluminescence and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) are employed as optical diagnostic techniques to analyze changes in heat release structure resulting from the experimental variation in water loading. A comparison is made with a CH4/air flame and changes in LBO stability limits are quantified, measuring the incremental increase in air flow and again compared against chemical models. The compound benefit of CO and NOx reduction is quantified also, with production first decreasing due to the thermal effect of H2O addition from a reduction in flame temperature, coupled with the potential for further reduction from the change in lean stability limit. Power law correlations have been derived for change in pressure, and equivalent water loading. Hence, the catalytic effect of H2O on reaction pathways and reaction rate predicted and observed for laminar flames are appraised within the challenging environment of turbulent, swirl-stabilized flames at elevated temperature and pressure, characteristic of practical systems.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Swirl burner assembly schematic (1) and pressure casing with optical access (2)

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Fig. 2

Raw chemiluminescence image of an axisymmetric sample flame (a) and the equivalent Abel deconvoluted image (b)

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Fig. 3

Modeled changes in; AFT (a) maximum HRR (b) uL (c) and KExt (d) for each stable operating condition. Experimental points are identified as markers.

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Fig. 4

One-dimensional OH spatial concentration profiles for P1 and P3 and two equivalent H2O loadings

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Fig. 5

Average OH* chemiluminescence images for converter gas and CH4 flames (a), and equivalent Abel transformed images (b), at Ø = 0.65 with increasing levels of H2O addition (Re × 103)

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Fig. 6

Average mirrored OH PLIF intensities for Ø = 0.65 with increasing levels of H2O addition

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Fig. 7

Average OH* chemiluminescence (global (a), Abel (b)) with equivalent H2O addition for P1,P2, and P3 (Re × 103)

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Fig. 8

Change in axial flame centroid location against modeled uL (hollow) and maximum HRR (shaded)

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Fig. 9

Mirrored average OH PLIF intensities for P1,P2, and P3 with equivalent levels of H2O addition

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Fig. 10

Change in LBO equivalence ratio for all experimental configurations

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Fig. 11

Change in normalized CO (a) and NOx (b) concentrations for Ø = 0.65 across all conditions

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