0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Windage Power Losses in High Speed Gears

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniele Massini, Tommaso Fondelli, Antonio Andreini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy

Bruno Facchini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: daniele.massini@htc.de.unifi.it

Lorenzo Tarchi

ERGON Research S.R.L.,
Via Panciatichi 92,
Florence 50127, Italy

F. Leonardi

GE Avio S.R.L.,
Via Primo Maggio 56,
Rivalta di Torino 10040, Italy

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 25, 2017; final manuscript received September 4, 2017; published online May 17, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(8), 082508 (May 17, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1392; doi: 10.1115/1.4038471 History: Received July 25, 2017; Revised September 04, 2017

Enhancing the efficiency of gearing systems is an important topic for the development of future aero-engines with low specific fuel consumption. An evaluation of its structure and performance is mandatory in order to optimize the design as well as maximize its efficiency. Mechanical power losses are usually distinguished into two main categories: load-dependent and load-independent losses. The former are all those associated with the transmission of torque, while the latter are tied to the fluid dynamics of the environment, which surrounds the gears. The relative magnitude of these phenomena is dependent on the operative conditions of the transmission: load-dependent losses are predominant at slow speeds and high torque conditions, load-independent mechanisms become prevailing in high speed applications, like in turbomachinery. A new test rig was designed for investigating windage power losses resulting by a single spur gear rotating in a free oil environment. The test rig allows the gear to rotate at high speed within a box where pressure and temperature conditions can be set and monitored. An electric spindle, which drives the system, is connected to the gear through a high accuracy torque meter, equipped with a speedometer providing the rotating velocity. The test box is fitted with optical accesses in order to perform particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements for investigating the flow field surrounding the rotating gear. The experiment has been computationally replicated, performing Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations in the context of conventional eddy viscosity models, achieving good agreement for all of the speed of rotations.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

IATA, 2013, “ The IATA Technology Roadmap Report,” International Air Transport Association, Montreal, QC, Canada, Report. https://www.iata.org/whatwedo/environment/Documents/technology-roadmap-2013.pdf
Petry-Johnson, T. T. , Kahraman, A. , Anderson, N. E. , and Chase, D. R. , 2008, “ An Experimental Investigation of Spur Gear Efficiency,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(6), p. 062601. [CrossRef]
Seetharaman, S. , and Kahraman, A. , 2009, “ Load-Independent Spin Power Losses of a Spur Gear Pair: Model Formulation,” ASME J. Tribol., 131(2), p. 022201. [CrossRef]
Handschuh, R. R. , and Kilmain, C. J. , 2003, “ Efficiency of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains,” NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA/TM-2003-212222. https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwix2L251dbXAhVRYt8KHZf8CoEQFgglMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dtic.mil%2Fcgi-bin%2FGetTRDoc%3FAD%3Dada414211&usg=AOvVaw2tT9BFH6G-C-7AtAi9SMuj
Eastwick, C. N. , and Johnson, G. , 2008, “ Gear Windage: A Review,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(3), p. 034001. [CrossRef]
Anderson, N. E. , and Loewenthal, S. H. , 1979, “ Spur-Gear-System Efficiency at Part and Full Load,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA-TP-1622. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800009206
Anderson, N. E. , and Loewenthal, S. H. , 1981, “ Effect of Geometry and Operating Conditions of Spur Gear System Power Loss,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 103(1), pp. 151–159. [CrossRef]
Dawson, P. H. , 1984, “ Windage Loss in Larger High-Speed Gears,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 198(1), pp. 51–59. [CrossRef]
Ville, F. , Velex, P. , Diab, Y. , and Changenet, C. , 2004, “ Windage Losses in High Speed Gears—Preliminary Experimental and Theoretical Results,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 126(5), pp. 903–908. [CrossRef]
Simmons, K. , Hibberd, S. , Farrall, M. , and Young, C. , 2005, “ Computational Investigation of the Airflow Through a Shrouded Bevel Gear,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68879.
Winfree, D. D. , 2000, “ Reducing Gear Windage Losses From High Speed Gears and Applying These Principles to Actual Running Hardware,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-13039.
Al-Shibl, K. , Simmons, K. , and Eastwick, C. N. , 2007, “ Modelling Windage Power Loss From an Enclosed Spur Gear,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A: J. Power Energy, 221(3), pp. 331–341.
Marchesse, Y. , Changenet, C. , Ville, F. , and Velex, P. , 2011, “ Investigations on CFD Simulations for Predicting Windage Power Losses in Spur Gears,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(2), p. 024501.
Hill, M. J. , Kunz, R. F. , Noack, R. W. , Long, L. N. , Morris, P. J. , and Handschuh, R. F. , 2008, “ Application and Validation of Unstructured Overset CFD Technology for Rotorcraft Gearbox Windage Aerodynamics Simulation,” 64th Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, Montreal, QC, Canada, Apr. 29–May 1. http://www.personal.psu.edu/lnl/papers/hill_etal_ahs2008.pdf
Hill, M. J. , Kunz, R. F. , Medvitz, R. B. , Handschuh, R. F. , Long, L. N. , Noack, R. W. , and Morris, P. J. , 2011, “ CFD Analysis of Gear Windage Losses: Validation and Parametric Aerodynamic Studies,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(3), p. 031103. [CrossRef]
ASME, 1985, “ Measurement Uncertainty in Instrument and Apparatus,” ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1-1985 of Performance Test Code, Vol. 19, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Kline, S. J. , and McClintock, F. A. , 1953, “ Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample Experiments,” Mech. Eng., 75(1), pp. 3–8.
Gancedo, M. , Gutmark, E. , and Guillou, E. , 2016, “ PIV Measurements of the Flow at the Inlet of a Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor With Recirculation Casing Treatment Near the Inducer,” Exp. Fluids, 57(2), pp. 1–19. [CrossRef]
Westerweel, J. , 1997, “ Fundamentals of Digital Particle Image Velocimetry,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 8(12), p. 1379. [CrossRef]
ANSYS, 2017, “ ANSYS® FLUENT, Theory Guide, Release 16.0,” ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
Diab, Y. , Ville, F. , Changenet, C. , and Velex, P. , 2003, “ Windage Losses in High Speed Gears: Preliminary Experimental and Theoretical Results,” ASME Paper No. DETC2003/PTG-48115.
Owen, J. M. , and Roger, R. H. , 1989, “ Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating-Disc Systems—Volume I: Rotor-Stator Systems,” Research Studies Press.
Hill, M. J. , and Kunz, R. F. , 2012, “ A Computational Investigation Gear Windage,” NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA/CR-2012-217807. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20130000783.pdf
Fondelli, T. , 2015, “ Numerical Investigation of Fluid-Dynamic Losses in Power Gearboxes for Aero-Engine Applications,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

View of the test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The T11 transducer installed on the drive train

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison between experimental and calculated friction losses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Particle image velocimetry measurement equipment and setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Particle image velocimetry investigated planes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Uncertainty evolution with torque

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Computational domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Computational grid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Test rig in free gear configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Power losses comparison between Diab's correlation and free and enclosed gear configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Power losses comparison between Diab's correlation and free and enclosed gear configurations imposing h1 = 0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Power losses for different working pressures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Power losses versus air density

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Power losses versus pitch velocity: comparison between CFD and experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Results expressed in dimensionless terms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Diab's definition of air passage area [21]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison between CFD and experiments and Owen correlation 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Absolute velocity and streamlines in XY plane: (a) absolute velocity and streamlines for Vp = 25 m/s and (b) absolute velocity and streamlines for Vp = 50 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Velocity profiles extracted from PIV measurements in XY plane: (a) tangential velocity comparison and (b) swirl comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

CFD pressure field in YZ plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

CFD flow field in YZ plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Particle image velocimetry velocity and vector maps in plane YZ: (a) PIV velocity and vector maps in plane YZ for Vp = 25 m/s and (b) PIV velocity and vector maps in plane YZ for Vp = 100 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Comparison between CFD and experiment: (a) PIV radial velocity and vector maps in gear relative frame for Vp = 25 m/s and (b) CFD radial velocity and vector maps in gear relative frame for Vp = 25 m/s

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In