Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Windage Power Losses in High Speed Gears

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniele Massini, Tommaso Fondelli, Antonio Andreini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy

Bruno Facchini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: daniele.massini@htc.de.unifi.it

Lorenzo Tarchi

ERGON Research S.R.L.,
Via Panciatichi 92,
Florence 50127, Italy

F. Leonardi

GE Avio S.R.L.,
Via Primo Maggio 56,
Rivalta di Torino 10040, Italy

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 25, 2017; final manuscript received September 4, 2017; published online May 17, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(8), 082508 (May 17, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1392; doi: 10.1115/1.4038471 History: Received July 25, 2017; Revised September 04, 2017

Enhancing the efficiency of gearing systems is an important topic for the development of future aero-engines with low specific fuel consumption. An evaluation of its structure and performance is mandatory in order to optimize the design as well as maximize its efficiency. Mechanical power losses are usually distinguished into two main categories: load-dependent and load-independent losses. The former are all those associated with the transmission of torque, while the latter are tied to the fluid dynamics of the environment, which surrounds the gears. The relative magnitude of these phenomena is dependent on the operative conditions of the transmission: load-dependent losses are predominant at slow speeds and high torque conditions, load-independent mechanisms become prevailing in high speed applications, like in turbomachinery. A new test rig was designed for investigating windage power losses resulting by a single spur gear rotating in a free oil environment. The test rig allows the gear to rotate at high speed within a box where pressure and temperature conditions can be set and monitored. An electric spindle, which drives the system, is connected to the gear through a high accuracy torque meter, equipped with a speedometer providing the rotating velocity. The test box is fitted with optical accesses in order to perform particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements for investigating the flow field surrounding the rotating gear. The experiment has been computationally replicated, performing Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations in the context of conventional eddy viscosity models, achieving good agreement for all of the speed of rotations.

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Fig. 2

The T11 transducer installed on the drive train

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Fig. 1

View of the test rig

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Fig. 3

Comparison between experimental and calculated friction losses

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Fig. 4

Particle image velocimetry measurement equipment and setup

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Fig. 5

Particle image velocimetry investigated planes

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Fig. 6

Uncertainty evolution with torque

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Fig. 7

Computational domain

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Fig. 8

Computational grid

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Fig. 10

Power losses comparison between Diab's correlation and free and enclosed gear configurations

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Fig. 11

Power losses comparison between Diab's correlation and free and enclosed gear configurations imposing h1 = 0

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Fig. 9

Test rig in free gear configuration

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Fig. 14

Power losses versus pitch velocity: comparison between CFD and experiments

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Fig. 15

Results expressed in dimensionless terms

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Fig. 12

Power losses for different working pressures

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Fig. 13

Power losses versus air density

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Fig. 16

Diab's definition of air passage area [21]

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Fig. 18

Absolute velocity and streamlines in XY plane: (a) absolute velocity and streamlines for Vp = 25 m/s and (b) absolute velocity and streamlines for Vp = 50 m/s

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Fig. 17

Comparison between CFD and experiments and Owen correlation 4

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Fig. 19

Velocity profiles extracted from PIV measurements in XY plane: (a) tangential velocity comparison and (b) swirl comparison

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Fig. 20

Comparison between CFD and experiment: (a) PIV radial velocity and vector maps in gear relative frame for Vp = 25 m/s and (b) CFD radial velocity and vector maps in gear relative frame for Vp = 25 m/s

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Fig. 21

Particle image velocimetry velocity and vector maps in plane YZ: (a) PIV velocity and vector maps in plane YZ for Vp = 25 m/s and (b) PIV velocity and vector maps in plane YZ for Vp = 100 m/s

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Fig. 22

CFD flow field in YZ plane

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Fig. 23

CFD pressure field in YZ plane



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