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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

A Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle for Concentrating Solar Power Applications Using an Isothermal Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Jin Young Heo

Korea Advanced Institute of Science
and Technology KAIST,
Department of Nuclear and Quantum
Engineering,
291 Daehak-ro,
Daejeon 34141, Yuseong-gu, South Korea
e-mail: jyh9090@kaist.ac.kr

Jinsu Kwon

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology KAIST,
Department of Nuclear and
Quantum Engineering,
291 Daehak-ro,
Daejeon 34141, Yuseong-gu, South Korea
e-mail: jinsukwon@kaist.ac.kr

Jeong Ik Lee

Mem. ASME
Korea Advanced Institute of Science
and Technology KAIST,
Department of Nuclear and Quantum
Engineering,
291 Daehak-ro,
Daejeon 34141, Yuseong-gu, South Korea
e-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 10, 2017; final manuscript received September 6, 2017; published online April 10, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(7), 071702 (Apr 10, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1448; doi: 10.1115/1.4038476 History: Received August 10, 2017; Revised September 06, 2017

For the concentrating solar power (CSP) applications, the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power cycle is beneficial in many aspects, including high cycle efficiencies, reduced component sizing, and potential for the dry cooling option. More research is involved in improving this technology to realize the s-CO2 cycle as a candidate to replace the conventional power conversion systems for CSP applications. In this study, an isothermal compressor, a turbomachine which undergoes the compression process at constant temperature to minimize compression work, is applied to the s-CO2 power cycle layout. To investigate the cycle performance changes of adopting the novel technology, a framework for defining the efficiency of the isothermal compressor is revised and suggested. This study demonstrates how the compression work for the isothermal compressor is reduced, up to 50%, compared to that of the conventional compressor under varying compressor inlet conditions. Furthermore, the simple recuperated and recompression Brayton cycle layouts using s-CO2 as a working fluid are evaluated for the CSP applications. Results show that for compressor inlet temperatures (CIT) near the critical point, the recompression Brayton cycle using an isothermal compressor has 0.2–1.0% point higher cycle thermal efficiency compared to its reference cycle. For higher CIT values, the recompression cycle using an isothermal compressor can perform above 50% in thermal efficiency for a wider range of CIT than the reference cycle. Adopting an isothermal compressor in the s-CO2 layout can imply larger heat exchange area for the compressor which requires further development.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Southwest Research Institute internally cooled multi-stage centrifugal compressor [5]

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Fig. 2

T–s diagram of the isothermal compression process using the infinitesimal approach

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Fig. 3

Graph of verifying isothermal compressor efficiency with increasing compression process number (CIT = 32 °C, CIP = 7.4 MPa, Pmax = 25 MPa)

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Fig. 4

Graph of compression work with varying CIT (CIP = 7.4 MPa, Pmax = 25 MPa, m = 100)

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Fig. 5

Graph of compression work with varying compressor inlet pressures (CIT = 32 °C, Pmax = 25 MPa, m = 100)

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Fig. 6

Configuration of simple recuperated Brayton cycle

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Fig. 7

Configuration of recompression Brayton cycle

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Fig. 13

Graph of cycle thermal efficiency with varying CIT for layout options (TIT = 650 °C, PR, FSR: optimized)

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Fig. 12

Graph of cycle thermal efficiency with varying turbine inlet temperatures for layout options (CIT = 32 °C, PR, FSR: optimized)

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Fig. 11

Graph of recuperator effectiveness with varying pressure ratios for different cycle layouts (TIT = 650 °C, CIT = 32 °C, FSR: optimized)

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Fig. 10

Graph of cycle thermal efficiency with varying pressure ratios for different cycle layouts (TIT = 650 °C, CIT = 32 °C, FSR: optimized)

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Fig. 9

T–s diagram of recompression cycle layouts

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Fig. 8

T–s diagram of recuperated cycle layouts

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