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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Investigation of Biodiesel Combustion and Emissions Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

[+] Author and Article Information
Aron P. Dobos

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, CO 80523
e-mail: adobos@engr.colostate.edu

Allan T. Kirkpatrick

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Colorado State University,
Fort Collins, CO 80523
e-mail: allan@engr.colostate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 20, 2016; final manuscript received September 19, 2017; published online February 28, 2018. Assoc. Editor: David L.S. Hung.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(6), 061509 (Feb 28, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1504; doi: 10.1115/1.4038521 History: Received October 20, 2016; Revised September 19, 2017

This paper studies the differences in spray structure and emissions trends between diesel and biodiesel fuels in a compression ignition engine. A computationally efficient and predictive quasi-dimensional simulation model is combined with fuel-specific physical properties and chemical kinetic mechanisms to predict spray mixing, combustion, and emissions behavior. The results underscore the complex relationships between NOx emissions, operational parameters, and fuel chemistry and provide further evidence of a link between stoichiometry near the flame lift-off length and formation of NOx.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Biodiesel surrogate fuel molecules methyl decanoate (C11H22O2) and methyl-9-decenoate (C11H20O2)

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Fig. 2

Quasi-dimensional spray parcel model

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Fig. 4

Comparison of (a) pressure and (b) AHRR. Diesel/bio signifies diesel thermophysical properties with biodiesel chemical kinetics, and bio/diesel is for biodiesel thermophysical properties but with diesel kinetics.

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Fig. 3

Fuel properties for diesel and biodiesel as a function of temperature: (a) density, (b) surface tension, (c) saturation pressure, (d) binary diffusivity, (e) kinematic viscosity, (f) heat of vaporization, (g) vapor conductivity, (h) vapor viscosity, and (i) vapor-specific heat

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Fig. 5

Instantaneous mass fraction of fuel in various states (liquid, vapor, and burned) for diesel and biodiesel under identical injection pressure, timing, and duration conditions

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Fig. 6

Comparison of spray tip, spray tail, and cylinder average temperatures for diesel and biodiesel

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Fig. 7

Pollutant formation for diesel and biodiesel under identical injection pressure, timing, and duration conditions

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Fig. 8

Comparison of (a) diesel and (b) biodiesel spray liquid lengths under identical injection pressure, timing, and duration conditions

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Fig. 9

Comparison of (a) diesel and (b) biodiesel temperatures under identical injection pressure, timing, and duration conditions

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Fig. 10

Comparison of (a) diesel and (b) biodiesel NOx under identical injection pressure, timing, and duration conditions

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Fig. 11

Liquid lengths for diesel and biodiesel as a function of crank angle

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Fig. 12

Flame lift-off lengths for diesel and biodiesel as a function of crank angle

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Fig. 13

Equivalence ratios at the flame lift-off length, mass-weighted cross-sectional average. Vertical lines indicate steady-state lift-off lengths. Instantaneous values include only vapor phase fuel molecules, while the total value also includes liquid fuel that has yet to evaporate.

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Fig. 14

(a) NOx emissions, and (b) local peak temperatures for diesel and biodiesel at various IMEPs and engine speeds

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Fig. 15

Relative NOx emissions change of biodiesel compared to diesel at various loads and engine speeds. Actual engine loads (IMEP) are listed in Table 5.

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Fig. 16

Stoichiometry at the lift-off length at (a) 700 rpm, and (b) 1100 rpm. Both at IMEP ≈ 8 bar.

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Fig. 17

Comparison of predicted and experimental AHRR and pressure, at 10 bar IMEP

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