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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Dynamic Similarity in Turbine Deposition Testing and the Role of Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Sacco, C. Bowen, R. Lundgreen, J. P. Bons

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43235

E. Ruggiero, J. Allen, J. Bailey

GE Aviation,
Cincinnati, OH 45215

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 23, 2017; final manuscript received September 23, 2017; published online July 5, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(10), 102605 (Jul 05, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1475; doi: 10.1115/1.4038550 History: Received August 23, 2017; Revised September 23, 2017

The role of absolute pressure in deposition testing is reviewed from first principles. Relevant dimensionless parameters for deposition testing are developed and dynamic similarity conditions are assessed in detail. Criteria for establishing appropriate conditions for laboratory studies of deposition are established pursuant to the similarity variables. The role of pressure is particularly singled out for consideration relative to other variables such as temperature, particle size, and test article geometry/scaling. A case study is presented for deposition in a generic array of impinging jets. A fixed quantity (2 g) of 0–10 μ Arizona road dust (ARD) is delivered to the impingement array at three different temperatures (290, 500, and 725 K) and at fixed pressure ratio. Deposition results are presented for operating pressures from 1 to 15 atm. Surface scans show that the height of deposit cones at the impingement sites decreases with increasing pressure at constant temperature and pressure ratio. This reduction is explained by the lower “effective” Stokes number that occurs at high particle Reynolds numbers, yielding fewer particle impacts at high pressure. A companion computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study identifies the additional role of Reynolds number in both the impingement hole losses and the shear layer thickness.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Predicted particle path lines for flow through a NGV cascade at 4 different diameters (1, 5, 15, 50 μm) and Stk (0.004, 0.11, 0.97, and 10.8). Background contours of Mach number. Path lines colored by Rep.

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Fig. 2

Predicted particle path lines for flow through an impingement cooling passage at four different diameters (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 μm) and Stk (0.01, 0.26, 1.1, 27). Background contours of velocity magnitude.

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Fig. 3

Predicted particle spanwise deviation from flow streamlines versus particle diameter. Particles tracked from rotor inlet plane to first impact location on rotor blade.

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Fig. 4

Drag coefficient of a sphere showing Stokes regime. Lines indicate actual cD higher than Stokes cD for Rep > 1.

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Fig. 5

Schematic of test apparatus

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Fig. 6

Impingement plate schematic with periodic edge spacers (dotted lines). Solid lines denote center of impingement area in each direction.

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Fig. 7

Sectioned view of assembled test fixture schematic (not to scale)

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Fig. 8

Sample target plate with deposits. Approximate area of optical scan indicated by shaded region. (P = 7.79 atm, T = 728 K, PR = 1.015).

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Fig. 9

Example of optical scan of shaded area in target plate from Fig. 8. Linear traces and grid indicated.

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Fig. 10

Flow regions of an impinging jet array

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Fig. 11

Deposit capture efficiency versus discharge cavity pressure at PR = 1.015

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Fig. 12

Normalized average peak height versus discharge cavity pressure at PR = 1.015

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Fig. 13

Average trace through impingement cones for all pressures at PR = 1.015 and T = 505 K

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Fig. 14

Average trace through impingement cones for all pressures at PR = 1.015 and T = 728 K

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Fig. 15

Capture efficiency versus cavity pressure at PR = 1.03

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Fig. 16

Computational domain for impingement holes

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Fig. 17

Velocity magnitude contours along impingement hole centerline for 3 pressures and T = 505 K, PR = 1.015

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Fig. 18

Predicted wall shear stress contours on the target wall (above) compared to deposit scans from experiment (below) at 3 pressures and T = 505 K, PR = 1.015

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