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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Sensitivity Analysis on the Effect of D32 and Dv90 on the Evaporation Efficiency of Gas Turbine Inlet Fogging for Power Augmentation

[+] Author and Article Information
Mustapha Chaker

CB&I,
Houston, TX 77072
e-mail: Chakerm2@asme.org

1Typically 40–200 bars.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 26, 2017; final manuscript received October 4, 2017; published online March 18, 2019. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(4), 042601 (Mar 18, 2019) (15 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1399; doi: 10.1115/1.4038604 History: Received July 26, 2017; Revised October 04, 2017

Gas turbine output is strongly dependent on the ambient air temperature. This decrease usually occurs in the hot afternoon during the peak demand for power. One way to counter this drop in output is to cool the inlet air using one of the available cooling technologies such as the inlet fog cooling of gas turbine engines for power augmentation. This technology is well established with over 1000 fogging systems installed all around the world on gas turbines of various makes and sizes ranging from 5 MW to 250 MW. Two types of statistical droplet diameters are used to characterize the droplet sizes from nozzles used in the fogging systems, namely D32 (Sauter mean diameter) (SMD) and Dv90 (diameter for which 90% of the water volume in the spray is less than or equal to). This paper will show the importance of each diameter on the performance of fogging systems. For this purpose, a heat and mass transfer theoretical model is developed to analyze the dynamics of evaporation of fog droplets. The model will quantify the evaporative efficiency of fog droplets for different D32 and Dv90 values derived from experimentally measured droplet size distributions at two typical ambient psychrometric conditions: hot and dry, and cold and humid.

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References

Chaker, M. , Meher-Homji, C. B. , and Mee, T. R., III , 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Part A: Fog Droplet Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Practical Considerations,” ASME Paper No. 2002-GT-30562.
Chaker, M. , and Mee, T. R., III , 2015, “Design Considerations of Fogging and Wet Compression Systems as Function of Gas Turbine Inlet Duct Configurations,” ASME Paper No. 2015-GT-43229.
Chaker, M. , and Meher-Homji , 2011, “Selection of Climatic Design Points for Gas Turbine Power Augmentation,” ASME Paper No. 2011-GT-46463.
Chaker, M. , 2005, “Key Parameters for the Performance of Impaction-Pin Nozzles Used in Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME Paper No. 2005-GT-68364.
Chaker, M. , Meher-Homji, C. B. , and Mee, T. R., III , 2008, “Gas Turbine Power Augmentation-Parametric Study Relating to Fog Droplet Size and Its Influence on Evaporative Efficiency,” ASME Paper No. 2008-GT-51476.
Bagnoli, M. , Bianchi, M. , Melino, F. , and Spina, P. R. , 2006, “Development and Validation of A Computational Code for Wet Compression Simulation of Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90342.
Kim, K. H. , and Kim, K. , 2012, “ Exergy Analysis Overspray Process Gas Turbine Systems,” Energies, 5(8), pp. 2745–2758. [CrossRef]
Bhargava, R. K. , Bianchi, M. , Chaker, M. A. , Melino, F. , Peretto, A. , and Spina, P. R. , 2009, “Gas Turbine Compressor Performance Characteristics During Wet Compression-Influence of Polydisperse Spray,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59907.
Hamdani, A. , Utamura, M. , Shibata, T. , and Myoren, C. , 2015, “ Numerical Simulations on Droplet Coalescence in an L-Shaped Duct for Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines,” Int. J. Gas Turbine, Propul. Power Syst., 7(1), pp. 1–9. http://www.gtsj.org/english/jgpp/v07n01tp01.pdf
Chaker, M. , and Meher-Homji, C. B. , “Effect of Water Temperature on the Performance of Gas Turbine Inlet Air Fogging Systems,” ASME Paper No. 2013-GT-95956.
Chaker, M. , Meher-Homji, C. B. , and Mee, T. R., III , 2002, “ Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines-Part C: Fog Behavior in Inlet Ducts, CFD Analysis and Wind Tunnel Experiments,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 126(3), pp. 571–580. [CrossRef]
Khan, J. R. , Wang, T. , and Chaker, M. , “Investigation of Cooling Effectiveness of Gas Turbine Inlet Fogging Location Relative to Silencer,” ASME Paper No. 2011-GT-46809.
Wexler, A. , and Greenspan, L. , 1971, “ Vapor Pressure Equation in the Range 0–100 °C,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., 75A(3), p. 213. [CrossRef]
Ranz, W. E. , and Marshall, W. R. , 1952, “ Evaporation From Drops, Part I,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 48(3), pp. 141–146.
Ranz, W. E. , and Marshall, W. R. , 1952, “ Evaporation From Drops, Part II,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 48(3), pp. 173–180.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Two droplet measurement histograms showing the importance of the use of both SMD and Dv90

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Fig. 2

Location of measurements in the plume and corresponding measured data

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Fig. 3

Distribution of D32 and Dv90

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Fig. 4

Typical droplet size distribution showing the cumulative water volume and cumulative droplet number (in left y-axis), water volume and droplet number (right y-axis) as function of droplet size

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Fig. 5

Droplets size distributions. Same D32, different Dv90.

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Fig. 6

Droplets Size distributions. Same Dv90, different D32.

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Fig. 7

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 8

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 9

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 10

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 11

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 12

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 13

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 14

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 45 °C, RH = 5%

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Fig. 15

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 80%

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Fig. 16

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 80%

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Fig. 17

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 80%

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Fig. 18

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 80%

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Fig. 19

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 80%

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Fig. 20

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 80%

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Fig. 21

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 8%

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Fig. 22

Evaporation efficiency, DBT = 15 °C, RH = 80%

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Fig. 23

Evaporation efficiency for same D32 and different Dv90. Hot and dry locations RH = 5%; DBT = 45 °C.

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Fig. 24

Evaporation efficiency for same Dv90 and different D32. Hot and dry locations RH = 5%; DBT = 45 °C.

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Fig. 25

Evaporation efficiency for same D32 and different Dv90 in cold and humid. RH = 80%; DBT = 15 °C.

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Fig. 26

Evaporation efficiency for same Dv90 and different D32 in cold and humid. RH = 80%; DBT = 15 °C.

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