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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Quantitative Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses of Particle Deposition in a Heavy-Duty Subsonic Axial Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicola Aldi, Nicola Casari, Devid Dainese, Michele Pinelli, Pier Ruggero Spina, Alessio Suman

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Mirko Morini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parma 43121, Italy

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 9, 2017; final manuscript received September 21, 2017; published online April 11, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(8), 082601 (Apr 11, 2018) (15 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1443; doi: 10.1115/1.4038608 History: Received August 09, 2017; Revised September 21, 2017

Solid particle ingestion is one of the principal degradation mechanisms in the compressor and turbine sections of gas turbines. In particular, in industrial applications, the microparticles not captured by the air filtration system can cause deposits on blading and, consequently, result in a decrease in compressor performance. In the literature, there are some studies related to the fouling phenomena in transonic compressors, but in industrial applications (heavy-duty compressors, pump stations, etc.), the subsonic compressors are widespread. It is highly important for the manufacturer to gather information about the fouling phenomenon related to this type of compressor. This paper presents three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of the microparticle ingestion (0.15–1.50 μm) in a multistage (i.e., eight stage) subsonic axial compressor, carried out by means of a commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. Particles of this size can follow the main air flow with relatively little slip, while being impacted by flow turbulence. It is of great interest to the industry to determine which zones of the compressor blades are impacted by these small particles. Particle trajectory simulations use a stochastic Lagrangian tracking method that solves the equations of motion separately from the continuous phase. The adopted computational strategy allows the evaluation of particle deposition in a multistage axial compressor thanks to the use of a mixing plane approach to model the rotor/stator interaction. The compressor numerical model and the discrete phase model are set up and validated against the experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The number of particles and sizes is specified in order to perform a quantitative analysis of the particle impacts on the blade surface. The blade zones affected by particle impacts and the kinematic characteristics (velocity and angle) of the impact of micrometric and submicrometric particles with the blade surface are shown. Both blade zones affected by particle impact and deposition are analyzed. The particle deposition is established by using the quantity called sticking probability (SP), adopted from the literature. The SP links the kinematic characteristics of particle impact on the blade with the fouling phenomenon. The results show that microparticles tend to follow the flow by impacting on the compressor blades at full span. The suction side (SS) of the blade is only affected by the impacts of the smallest particles. Particular fluid dynamic phenomena, such as corner separations and clearance vortices, strongly influence the impact location of the particles. The impact and deposition trends decrease according to the stages. The front stages appear more affected by particle impact and deposition than the rear ones.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Computational domain for the multistage compressor: (a) single passage model, (b) mesh on a rotor blade, and (c) mesh on a stator vane

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Fig. 1

Weight distribution of deposits on the convex and concave sides of the compressor blades [6]: (a) rotors and (b) stators

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Fig. 3

Compressor performance curves: total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency

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Fig. 4

Capture efficiency versus particle diameter for the isolated first-stage rotor

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Fig. 5

Particle impact distributions for the isolated first-stage rotor

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Fig. 6

Particle impact velocity, dp = 0.15 μm

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Fig. 7

Particle impact velocity, dp = 0.50 μm

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Fig. 8

Particle impact velocity, dp = 1.00 μm

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Fig. 9

Particle impact velocity, dp = 1.50 μm

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Fig. 12

Particle impact angle, dp = 1.00 μm

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Fig. 13

Particle impact angle, dp = 1.50 μm

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Fig. 14

Particle deposition patterns, dp = 0.15 μm

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Fig. 10

Particle impact angle, dp = 0.15 μm

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Fig. 11

Particle impact angle, dp = 0.50 μm

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Fig. 18

Trends of the ratio ηhit and ηhit,SP > 0.5

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Fig. 15

Particle deposition patterns, dp = 0.50 μm

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Fig. 16

Particle deposition patterns, dp = 1.00 μm

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Fig. 17

Particle deposition patterns, dp = 1.50 μm

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Fig. 19

Static temperature evolution along the compressor

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Fig. 20

(a) Computational domain and numerical grid and (b) nondimensional particle deposition velocity versus relaxation time [18]

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Fig. 21

Particle normal impact velocity, dp = 0.15 μm

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Fig. 22

Particle normal impact velocity, dp = 0.50 μm

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Fig. 23

Particle normal impact velocity, dp = 1.00 μm

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Fig. 24

Particle normal impact velocity, dp = 1.50 μm

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Fig. 25

Particle tangential impact velocity, dp = 0.15 μm

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Fig. 26

Particle tangential impact velocity, dp = 0.50 μm

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Fig. 27

Particle tangential impact velocity, dp = 1.00 μm

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Fig. 28

Particle tangential impact velocity, dp = 1.50 μm

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