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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Stabilization Mechanisms of Swirling Premixed Flames With an Axial-Plus-Tangential Swirler

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul Jourdaine

Air Liquide,
Centre de Recherche Paris Saclay,
Les Loges en Josas, 78354,
Saclay 92295, France
e-mail: paul.jourdaine@airliquide.com

Clément Mirat

Laboratoire EM2C,
CNRS,
CentraleSupélec,
Université Paris-Saclay,
3, rue Joliot Curie,
Gif-sur-Yvette cedex 91192, France
e-mail: clement.mirat@centralesupelec.fr

Jean Caudal

Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Paris Saclay,
Les Loges en Josas, 78354,
Saclay 92295, France,
e-mail: jean.caudal@airliquide.com

Thierry Schuller

Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse
(IMFT),
Université de Toulouse,
CNRS, INPT, UPS,
Toulouse 31400, France,
e-mail: thierry.schuller@imft.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 24, 2017; final manuscript received September 30, 2017; published online April 18, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(8), 081502 (Apr 18, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1476; doi: 10.1115/1.4038617 History: Received August 24, 2017; Revised September 30, 2017

The stabilization of premixed flames within a swirling flow produced by an axial-plus-tangential swirler is investigated in an atmospheric test rig. In this system, flames are stabilized aerodynamically away from the solid components of the combustor without the help of any solid anchoring device. Experiments are reported for lean CH4/air mixtures, eventually also diluted with N2, with injection Reynolds numbers varying from 8500 to 25,000. Changes of the flame shape are examined with OH* chemiluminescence and OH laser-induced fluorescence measurements as a function of the operating conditions. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to reveal the structure of the velocity field in nonreacting and reacting conditions. It is shown that the axial-plus-tangential swirler allows to easily control the flame shape and the position of the flame leading edge with respect to the injector outlet. The ratio of the bulk injection velocity over the laminar burning velocity Ub/SL, the adiabatic flame temperature Tad, and the swirl number S0 are shown to control the flame shape and its position inside the combustion chamber. It is then shown that the axial velocity field produced by the axial-plus-tangential swirler is different from those produced by purely axial or radial devices. It takes here a W-shape profile with three local maxima and two minima. The mean turbulent flame front also takes this W-shape in an axial plane, with two lower positions located slightly off-axis and corresponding to the positions where the axial flow velocity is the lowest. It is finally shown that these positions can be inferred from axial flow velocity profiles under nonreacting conditions.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sketch of the injector with the main dimensions: (a) axial cut and (b) transverse cut through the swirler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

OXYTEC atmospheric test-rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Two-dimensional velocity fields in nonreacting conditions measured in the axial plane passing through the center of the injector. The black line delineates the position where the axial velocity is zero, uz = 0 m s−1. Ub = 14.3 m s−1, Re = 18,000, S0 = 0.70 (top), 0.85 (middle), and 1.0 (bottom) (see online version for colors).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

OH* images of CH4/air flames, ϕ = 0.95, P = 13 kW, Re = 18,000, Ub = 14.3 m/s, Ub/SL = 39 and varying swirl numbers S0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Position of the leading reaction edge of N2-diluted CH4/air lean flames at S0 = 0.75 as a function of Tad and Ub/SL. The flame leading edge is located inside zf/r0 < 0 (red circles) or outside zf/r0 > 0 (blue diamonds) the injector. Green squares indicate undetermined states with intermittent transitions between the two states. The gray zone roughly delineates the transition region where it is difficult to safely determine the leading edge flame position.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Axial mean velocity (line), axial rms velocity (dotted line) and burnt gases probability of presence (small dotted line) extracted from Figs. 9 and 11, respectively, at z/r0 = 2.0 (top), z/r0 = 1.0 (middle) and z/r0 = 0.5 (bottom)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Axial (black circles), radial (red squares), and tangential (blue diamonds) velocity profiles at z/r0 = 0.5 extracted from the PIV fields presented in Fig. 7

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Velocity field in reacting conditions measured in the axial plane through the center of the injector. The black line delineates the position where the axial velocity is zero, uz = 0. Ub = 14.3 m s−1, S0 = 0.85, Re = 18,000, ϕ = 0.95. (See online version for colors.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Axial uz (top) and radial ur (bottom) velocity profiles in reacting (red diamonds) and nonreacting (blue circles) conditions with S0 = 0.85 at z/r0 = 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Probability of presence of hot burnt gases in the axial plane overlaid with the corresponding velocity field. The black line delineates the positions where the hot burnt gases are present 40% of the time. ϕ = 0.95, Re = 18,000, S0 = 0.85. Spacial resolution: 8.55 pixels/mm. (See online version for colors.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

OH* images of CH4/air flames, ϕ = 0.95, S0 = 0.75, and varying thermal power P

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

OH* images of CH4/air flames, ϕ = 0.95, P = 20 kW, Re = 27,800, Ub = 21.9 m/s, Ub/SL = 59, and varying swirl numbers S0

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