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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Working-Fluid Replacement in Supersonic Organic Rankine Cycle Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin T. White

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Aeronautics,
City, University of London,
Northampton Square,
London EC1V 0HB, UK
e-mail: martin.white@city.ac.uk

Christos N. Markides

Clean Energy Processes (CEP) Laboratory,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
South Kensington Campus,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: c.markides@imperial.ac.uk

Abdulnaser I. Sayma

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Aeronautics,
City, University of London,
Northampton Square,
London EC1V 0HB, UK
e-mail: a.sayma@city.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 31, 2017; final manuscript received October 16, 2017; published online June 15, 2018. Assoc. Editor: David Sánchez.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 091703 (Jun 15, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4038754 History: Received January 31, 2017; Revised October 16, 2017

In this paper, the effect of working-fluid replacement within an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine is investigated by evaluating the performance of two supersonic stators operating with different working fluids. After designing the two stators, intended for operation with R245fa and Toluene with stator exit absolute Mach numbers of 1.4 and 1.7, respectively, the performance of each stator is evaluated using ANSYS cfx. Based on the principle that the design of a given stator is dependent on the amount of flow turning, it is hypothesized that a stator's design point can be scaled to alternative working fluids by conserving the Prandtl–Meyer function and the polytropic index within the nozzle. A scaling method is developed and further computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the scaled operating points verify that the Mach number distributions within the stator, and the nondimensional velocity triangles at the stator exit, remain unchanged. This confirms that the method developed can predict stator performance following a change in the working fluid. Finally, a study investigating the effect of working-fluid replacement on the thermodynamic cycle is completed. The results show that the same turbine could be used in different systems with power outputs varying between 17 and 112 kW, suggesting the potential of matching the same turbine to multiple heat sources by tailoring the working fluid selected. This further implies that the same turbine design could be deployed in different applications, thus leading to economy-of-scale improvements.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Γ, z, and J for expansion of R245fa and toluene from 0.95Pcr and 1.01Tcr to increasing Mach numbers

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Fig. 2

Stator mesh consisting of 1.4×105 elements

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Fig. 3

Contours of absolute Mach number predicted by CFD for the R245fa supersonic stator vane

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Fig. 4

Contours of absolute Mach number predicted by CFD for the toluene supersonic stator vane

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Fig. 5

Computational fluid dynamics results for the R245fa and toluene supersonic stators: stator centerline Mach number (top) and local loss coefficient at rotor inlet radius (r4 = 40 mm) (bottom)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of the design point rotor inlet velocity triangles with the area-averaged rotor inlet velocity triangles obtained from the CFD simulations for the R245fa (top) and toluene (bottom) stators

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Fig. 7

Variation in ν for the expansion of R245fa from different total inlet pressures to a range of Mach numbers Ma

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Fig. 8

The variation in the normalized polytropic index k/kd for the expansion of different working fluids from different reduced total inlet pressures P0/Pcr. For each case, the static outlet conditions are selected to maintain the same Prandtl–Meyer function ν that is associated with the original design point: R245fa stator (top) and toluene stator (bottom).

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Fig. 9

Midline Mach number distributions for the two stators operating with alternative working fluids: R245fa (top) and toluene (bottom)

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Fig. 10

Local loss coefficient at r4 for the two stators operating with alternative working fluids: R245fa (top) and toluene (bottom)

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Fig. 11

Turbine power (top) and ORC condensation temperatures (bottom) for the R245fa and toluene turbines when operating with alternative working fluids at different turbine inlet temperatures

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Fig. 12

Power produced from the R245fa turbine when the design point is scaled to alternative working fluids

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Fig. 13

Relationship between the normalized power produced from the R245fa turbine when operating with different working fluids and the turbine inlet pressure P01. The results are split into two groups: (i) Tc=323K and (ii) saturation temperature at 100 kPa (i.e., Tc>323K).

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Fig. 14

Geometrical description of the supersonic turbine

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