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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Experimental Investigation of Vibrational and Acoustic Phenomena for Detecting the Stall and Surge of a Multistage Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Enrico Munari, Gianluca D'Elia, Emiliano Mucchi, Michele Pinelli, Pier Ruggero Spina

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Mirko Morini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parma 43121, Italy

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 10, 2017; final manuscript received October 22, 2017; published online June 15, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 092605 (Jun 15, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1451; doi: 10.1115/1.4038765 History: Received August 10, 2017; Revised October 22, 2017

Nowadays, the operative range limit of compressors is still a key aspect of the research into turbomachinery. In particular, the study of the mass flow rate lower limit represents a significant factor in order to predict and avoid the inception of critical working conditions and instabilities such as stall and surge. The identification of these instabilities and typical precursors of these two phenomena can imply many advantages, in both stationary and aeronautic applications, such as avoiding the loss of production (in industry) and efficiency of systems and reducing the maintenance and repairing cost. Many approaches can be adopted to achieve this target, but one of the most fascinating is the vibro-acoustic analysis of the compressor response during operation. At the Engineering Department of the University of Ferrara, a test bench, dedicated to the study of the performance of an aeronautic turboshaft engine multistage compressor, has been equipped with a high frequency data acquisition system. A set of triaxle accelerometers and microphones, suitable for capturing broad-band vibration and acoustic phenomena, were installed in strategic positions along the compressor and the test rig. A great amount of vibro-acoustic data were first processed through an innovative data analysis technique, and then correlated to the thermodynamic data recorded. Subsequently, the precursor signals of surge were detected and identified demonstrating the reliability of the methodology used for studying compressor instabilities. The experimental data and results offer a valid alternative way of analyzing and detecting unstable compressor behavior characteristics by means of nonintrusive measurements.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Installation of the accelerometer on the axial part (a) and the radial part (b) of the compressor

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Fig. 2

Piping system configuration. Layout #1 and layout #2 with the (a) thermodynamic and (b) vibro-acoustic sensors.

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Fig. 1

The tested compressor

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Fig. 4

Layout #1 steady-state test microphone Pf spectrum: (a) valve completely opened and (b) valve completely closed

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Fig. 5

Layout #1 steady-state test, comparison of g3a,x accelerometer spectra

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Fig. 10

Layout #2 transient test: cyclic power of accelerometer g3a,x

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Fig. 6

Layout #1 steady-state test microphone Pf time signal (left) with its MIP (right): (a) valve completely opened and (b) valve completely closed

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Fig. 7

Layout #1 transient test: cyclic power of microphone Pf

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Fig. 8

Layout #1 steady-state test CMS of the g3a,x accelerometer: (a) valve completely open and (b) valve completely closed

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Fig. 9

Layout #1 transient test: cyclic power of accelerometer g3a,x

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