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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of a Core-Mounted Target-Type Thrust Reverser—Part 2: Reverser Deployed Configuration

[+] Author and Article Information
Tashfeen Mahmood

Defence Equipment and Services,
Ministry of Defence,
Bristol BS34 8JH, UK
e-mail: dr.tashfeenmahmood@gmail.com

Anthony Jackson

Centre for Propulsion Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: a.j.b.jackson@cranfield.ac.uk

Vishal Sethi

Centre for Propulsion Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: v.sethi@cranfield.ac.uk

Bidur Khanal

Centre for Defence Engineering,
Cranfield University,
Shrivenham SN6 8 LA, UK
e-mail: b.khanal@cranfield.ac.uk

Fakhre Ali

Applied Mechanics Department,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Hörsalsvägen 7A,
Göteborg 414 96, Sweden
e-mail: aeroali@yahoo.com

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 17, 2017; final manuscript received November 8, 2017; published online July 9, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 091205 (Jul 09, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1465; doi: 10.1115/1.4038817 History: Received August 17, 2017; Revised November 08, 2017

Core-mounted target-type thrust reverser (CMTTTR) design was proposed by NASA in the second half of the 90 s. NASA carried out several experiments at static conditions, and their acquired results suggested that the performance characteristics of the CMTTTR design fall short to comply with the mandatory thrust reverser (TR) performance criteria, and were therefore regarded as an infeasible design. However, the authors of this paper believe that the results presented by NASA for the CMTTTR design require further exploration to facilitate the complete understanding of its true performance potential. This part 2 paper is a continuation from Part 1 (reverser stowed configuration) and presents a comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the CMTTTR in deployed configuration. The acquired results are extensively analyzed for aforementioned TR configuration operating under the static operating conditions at sea level, i.e., sea-level static, International Standard Atmosphere (ISA); the analyses at forward flight conditions will be covered in part 3. The key objectives of this paper are: First, to validate the acquired CFD results with the experimental data provided by NASA; this is achieved by measuring the static pressure values on various surfaces of the deployed CMTTTR model. The second objective is to estimate the performance characteristics of the CMTTTR design and corroborate the results with experimental data. The third objective is to estimate the pressure thrust (i.e., axial thrust generated due to the pressure difference across various reverser surfaces) and discuss its significance for formulating the performance of any TR design. The fourth objective is to investigate the influence of kicker plate installation on overall TR performance. The fifth and final objective is to examine and discuss the overall flow physics associated with the thrust reverse under deployed configuration.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
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References

Scott, C. A. , 2000, “Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program,” NASA Langley Research Centre, Hampton, VA, Report No. TM-2000-210300.
Mahmood, T. , Jackson, A. , Sethi, V. , Khanal, B. , and Ali, F. , 2018, “ Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of a Core-Mounted-Target-Type Thrust Reverser—Part 1: Reverser Stowed Configuration,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbine and Power (accepted).
Chuck, C. , 2001, “Computational Procedure for Complex Three-Dimensional Geometries Including Thrust Reverser Effluxes and APUs,” AIAA Paper No. 2001-3747.
Andrade, F. O. , Ferreira, S. B. , Silva, L. F. F. , Jesus, A. A. B. , and Oliveira, G. L. , 2006, “Study of the Influence of Aircraft Geometry on the Computed Flowfield During Thrust Reversers Operation,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-3673.
Trapp, L. G. , and Oliveira, G. L. , 2003, “Aircraft Thrust Reverser Cascade Configuration Evaluation Through CFD,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-723.
Turpin, G. , Vuillot, F. , Croisy, C. , Bernier, D. , and Mabboux, G. , “Numerical Simulation of Thrust Reverser for Rear Mounted Engine,” Snecma, Safran Group, Courcouronnes, France.
ANSYS, 2011, “ANSYS FLUENT User's Guide,” Release 14.0., ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Conceptual layout of an Annular Metal Target Type Thrust Reverser, also referred in this paper as CMTTTR [1]

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Fig. 2

Wind tunnel model of the CMTTTR in deployed configuration [1]

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Fig. 3

Cross-sectional view of the CMTTTR, adopted from Ref. [1]

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Fig. 4

Three-dimensional CAD models of a HBPR ≈ 9 engine, employing a CMTTTR with and without kicker plate

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Fig. 5

An isometric view of the complete 3D computer-aided design (CAD) model used for this CFD study

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Fig. 6

Two runway surfaces are built. The surface immediately under the nacelle will have a refined mesh; this will help understand the complex flow physics underneath the nacelle.

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Fig. 7

(a) Shows the CMTTTR without kicker plate and (b) shows the CMTTTR with kicker plate; Kicker plate enhances the axial component of the reverse flow. In both designs, flow leaves the TR exit area plane radially.

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Fig. 8

(a) Surface meshes on the CMTTTR, kicker plate, and exhaust plug and (b) surface meshes on pylon, nacelle, fan nozzle, and CMTTTR

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Fig. 9

(a) Surface meshes on core internal surface, pylon, core nozzle, and exhaust plug, (b) surface meshes on core nacelle outer cowl, and (c) surface meshes on fan nacelle inner cowl and CMTTTR

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Fig. 10

(a) Surface meshes on engine inlet, nose cone, bypass nacelle, CMTTTR and runway and (b) surface meshes on exhaust plug, pylon, and wing

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Fig. 11

Locations where static pressure measurements were recorded during experiment [1]

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Fig. 12

Comparing CFD results with test data. Reverser is deployed, no kicker plate installed: (a) core nacelle internal surface, (b) fan nacelle internal surface, and (c) reverser internal surface.

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Fig. 13

Comparing CFD results with test data. Reverser is deployed, kicker plate installed: (a) core nacelle internal surface, (b) fan nacelle internal surface, and (c) reverser internal surface.

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Fig. 14

Comparison of test and CFD results for overall thrust reverser effectiveness: (a) no kicker plate installed and (b) kicker plate installed. Also, shown on the figure is the increase in overall reverser effectiveness when the pressure thrust is included in the CFD results.

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Fig. 15

Static pressure contours on a 40 deg CMTTTR, M = 0.0, FNPR = 1.45. Kicker plate installed.

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Fig. 16

Shows the typical flow behavior for the CMTTTR at static condition, M = 0.0: (a) frontal view and (b) side view

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Fig. 17

(a) Streamlines plot in the horizontal plane from engine center line, FNPR = 1.57, Mach = 0.0. (b) shows the zoomed-in view of the streamline plot.

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Fig. 18

(a) Streamlines plot in the vertical plane from engine center line, FNPR = 1.55, M = 0.0. (b) zoomed in view of the streamline plot. (c) streamline plots in the vertical plane at FNPR = 1.22, M = 0.0.1.

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