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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Comparison of Numerical Combustion Models for Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Applied for Dry-Low-Nox-Micromix-Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Harald H. W. Funke

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Hohenstaufenallee 6,
Aachen 52064, Germany
e-mail: funke@fh-aachen.de

Nils Beckmann

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Hohenstaufenallee 6,
Aachen 52064, Germany
e-mail: n.beckmann@fh-aachen.de

Jan Keinz

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Hohenstaufenallee 6,
Aachen 52064, Germany
e-mail: keinz@fh-aachen.de

Sylvester Abanteriba

RMIT University School of Engineering,
124 La Trobe Street,
Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia
e-mail: sylvester.abanteriba@rmit.edu.au

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 18, 2017; final manuscript received December 7, 2017; published online April 26, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(8), 081504 (Apr 26, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1567; doi: 10.1115/1.4038882 History: Received October 18, 2017; Revised December 07, 2017

The Dry-Low-NOx (DLN) Micromix combustion technology has been developed as low emission combustion principle for industrial gas turbines fueled with hydrogen or syngas. The combustion process is based on the phenomenon of jet-in-crossflow-mixing (JICF). Fuel is injected perpendicular into the air-cross-flow and burned in a multitude of miniaturized, diffusion-like flames. The miniaturization of the flames leads to a significant reduction of NOx emissions due to the very short residence time of reactants in the flame. In the Micromix research approach, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses are validated toward experimental results. The combination of numerical and experimental methods allows an efficient design and optimization of DLN Micromix combustors concerning combustion stability and low NOx emissions. The paper presents a comparison of several numerical combustion models for hydrogen and hydrogen-rich syngas. They differ in the complexity of the underlying reaction mechanism and the associated computational effort. The performance of a hybrid eddy-break-up (EBU) model with a one-step global reaction is compared to a complex chemistry model and a flamelet generated manifolds (FGM) model, both using detailed reaction schemes for hydrogen or syngas combustion. Validation of numerical results is based on exhaust gas compositions available from experimental investigation on DLN Micromix combustors. The conducted evaluation confirms that the applied detailed combustion mechanisms are able to predict the general physics of the DLN-Micromix combustion process accurately. The FGM method proved to be generally suitable to reduce the computational effort while maintaining the accuracy of detailed chemistry.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Computational domain of the derived slice model

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Fig. 3

Schematics of the Micromix combustor geometry, detailing the recirculation zones and aerodynamic flame stabilization

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Fig. 2

Geometry of a typical Micromix combustor

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Fig. 1

Section view of a Micromix combustor

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Fig. 5

Schematics of the atmospheric test rig

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Fig. 11

Numerical and experimental results of NO/NOx emissions corrected to 15 vol % O2 for H2 combustion

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Fig. 9

Unburned H2 mole fractions for equilibrium and nonequilibrium (PSR) conditions

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Fig. 10

Temperature distribution for models A2 (a) and A3 (b) and spatial development of cross-sectional mean mass fractions of unburned H2 (c) and mean molar concentrations of OH (d) at φ = 0.4

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Fig. 6

Sketch of DLN Micromix test-burner

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Fig. 15

Temperature distribution on the central symmetry plane for models B1 (a) and B3 (b) and spatial development of cross-sectional mean mass fractions of unburned H2 (c), unburned CO (d), and mean molar concentration of OH (e) at φ = 0.4

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Fig. 7

Numerical and experimental results of exhaust O2 volume fractions for H2 combustion

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Fig. 8

Numerical and experimental results of unburned H2 mole fractions for H2 combustion

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Fig. 12

Spatial distribution of the molecular production rate of NO for models A2 (top) and A3 (bottom) at φ = 0.4

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Fig. 13

Cross-sectional distribution of O-concentrations (left) and temperatures (right) for models A2 (top) and A3 (bottom) at different locations z and φ = 0.4

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Fig. 14

Numerical and experimental results of O2 (a) and CO2 (b) volume fractions and H2 (c) and CO (d) mole fractions for syngas combustion

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Fig. 16

Numerical and experimental results of NO/NOx emissions corrected to 15 vol % O2 for syngas combustion

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Fig. 17

Calculation time per iteration as function of species count for DARS-CFD reaction and FGM models

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