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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Analysis of Crank Angle-Resolved Vortex Characteristics Under High Swirl Condition in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Fengnian Zhao

University of Michigan–Shanghai,
Jiao Tong University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: iclover@sjtu.edu.cn

Penghui Ge

University of Michigan-Shanghai,
Jiao Tong University Joint Institute
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: penghuige@sjtu.edu.cn

Hanyang Zhuang

University of Michigan-Shanghai,
Jiao Tong University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zhuanghany11@sjtu.edu.cn

David L. S. Hung

Mem. ASME
University of Michigan-Shanghai,
Jiao Tong University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: dhung@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 23, 2017; final manuscript received January 11, 2018; published online June 15, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 092807 (Jun 15, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1573; doi: 10.1115/1.4039082 History: Received October 23, 2017; Revised January 11, 2018

In-cylinder air flow structure makes significant impacts on fuel spray dispersion, fuel mixture formation, and flame propagation in spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engines. While flow vortices can be observed during the early stage of intake stroke, it is very difficult to clearly identify their transient characteristics because these vortices are of multiple length scales with very different swirl motion strength. In this study, a high-speed time-resolved two-dimensional (2D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) is applied to record the flow structure of in-cylinder flow field along a swirl plane at 30 mm below the injector tip. First, a discretized method using flow field velocity vectors is presented to identify the location, strength, and rotating direction of vortices at different crank angles. The transients of vortex formation and dissipation processes are revealed by tracing the location and motion of the vortex center during the intake and compression strokes. In addition, an analysis method known as the wind-rose diagram, which is implemented for meteorological application, has been adopted to show the velocity direction distributions of 100 consecutive cycles. Results show that there exists more than one vortex center during early intake stroke and their fluctuations between each cycle can be clearly visualized. In summary, this approach provides an effective way to identify the vortex structure and to track the motion of vortex center for both large-scale and small-scale vortices.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

An example of wind-rose diagram [11]

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Fig. 2

(a) Optical engine; (b) pent roof window; and (c) quartz optical piston

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup and valve configuration

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Fig. 4

Sample vorticity maps of two distinct flow fields (unit: s−1)

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Fig. 5

(a) Four neighbor velocity vectors with vortex center index of +4 and (b) four neighbor velocity vectors with vortex center index of −4

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Fig. 6

Ensemble average flow fields of 100 consecutive cycles and wind-rose diagram of velocity direction distribution at a specific point

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Fig. 7

Ensemble average flow fields and corresponding vorticity maps

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Fig. 8

Three parts for detailed vortex structure analysis

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Fig. 9

Locations of vortex center candidates from −298 CAD to −292 CAD

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Fig. 10

Locations of vortex center candidates from −278 CAD to −270 CAD

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Fig. 11

Wind-rose diagram of point A at −298 CAD

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Fig. 12

Wind-rose diagram of point B at −298 CAD

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Fig. 13

Wind-rose diagram of point A and B at −296 CAD

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Fig. 14

Wind-rose diagram of point A and B at −294 CAD

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Fig. 15

Vortex centers and vorticity maps at −270 CAD, −180 CAD, and −120 CAD

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Fig. 16

Average vorticity from −270 CAD to −90 CAD

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Fig. 17

Wind-rose diagrams of vortex centers at −240 CAD, −210 CAD, −180 CAD, and –120 CAD

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Fig. 18

Vortex centers and vorticity maps at −90 CAD, −80 CAD, −70 CAD, and −60 CAD

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Fig. 19

Wind-rose diagrams of vortex centers at −90 CAD and −70 CAD

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