Technical Brief

A Method for Matching Two-Stage Turbocharger System and Its Influence on Engine Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Binyang Wu

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: binyang.wu@tju.edu.cn

Zhiqiang Han

School of Automobile and Transportation,
Xihua University,
Chengdu 610035, China
e-mail: 8312862@qq.com

Xiaoyang Yu

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: yxy860701@163.com

Shunkai Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China,
e-mail: 784047601@qq.com

Xiaokun Nie

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: niexiaokun@tju.edu.cn

Wanhua Su

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: whsu@tju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 17, 2017; final manuscript received February 4, 2018; published online February 21, 2019. Assoc. Editor: David L. S. Hung.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(5), 054502 (Feb 21, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1144; doi: 10.1115/1.4039461 History: Received April 17, 2017; Revised February 04, 2018

Matching of a two-stage turbocharging system is important for high efficiency engines because the turbocharger is the most effective method of exhaust heat recovery. In this study, we propose a method to match a two-stage turbocharging system for high efficiency over the entire range of operational conditions. Air flow is an important parameter because it influences combustion efficiency and heat load performance. First, the thermodynamic parameters of the engine and the turbocharging system are calculated in eight steps for selecting and matching the turbochargers. Then, by designing the intercooler intensity, distribution of pressure ratio, and compressor operational efficiency, it is ensured that the turbochargers not only meet the air flow requirements but also operate with high efficiency. The concept of minimum total drive power of the compressors is introduced at a certain boost pressure. It is found that the distribution of pressure ratio of the high- and low-pressure (LP) turbocharger should be regulated according to the engine speed by varying the rack position of the variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) to obtain the minimum total drive work. It is verified that two-stage turbochargers have high efficiency over the entire range of operational conditions by experimental research. Compared with the original engine torque, low-speed torque is improved by more than 10%, and the engine low fuel consumption area is broadened.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hasegawa, R. , and Yanagihara, H. , 2003, “ HCCI Combustion in DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0745.
Sjöberg, M. , and Dec, J. E. , 2005, “ An Investigation Into Lowest Acceptable Combustion Temperatures for Hydrocarbon Fuels in HCCI Engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(2), pp. 2719–2726. [CrossRef]
Gan, S. , Ng, H. K. , and Pang, K. M. , 2011, “ Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion: Implementation and Effects on Pollutants in Direct Injection Diesel Engines,” Appl. Energy, 88(3), pp. 559–567. [CrossRef]
Hunicz, J. , and Kordos, P. , 2011, “ An Experimental Study of Fuel Injection Strategies in CAI Gasoline Engine,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(1), pp. 243–252. [CrossRef]
Osada, H. , Aoyagi, Y. , and Shimada, K. , 2012, “ Diesel Combustion Improvement Using High Boost, Wide Range and High Rate EGR in a Single Cylinder Engine,” Trans. Soc. Automot. Eng. Jpn., 43(4), pp. 855–861. https://trid.trb.org/view/1282298
Braun, T. , Rabl, H. , and Mayer, W. , 2013, “ Emission Reduction Potential by Means of High Boost and Injection Pressure at Low- and Mid-Load for a Common Rail Diesel Engine Under High EGR Rates,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-254.
Wakisaka, Y. , Hotta, Y. , and Inayoshi, M. , 2008, “ Emissions Reduction Potential of Extremely High Boost and High EGR Rate for an HSDI Diesel Engine and the Reduction Mechanisms of Exhaust Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1189.
Torregrosa, A. J. , Olmeda, P. , Martı´n, J. , and Degraeuwe, B. , 2006, “ Experiments on the Influence of Inlet Charge and Coolant Temperature on Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 30(7), pp. 633–641. [CrossRef]
Wanhua, S., Yingying, L., Wenbin, Y., Changqing, W., Yiqiang, P., Yongliang, S., Yunqiang, L., Zhongfu, Y., and Jinfeng, W., 2009, “ High Density-Low Temperature Combustion in Diesel Engine Based on Technologies of Variable Boost Pressure and Intake Valve Timing,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1911.
Yingying, L. , Wenbin, Y. , Yiqiang, P. , and Wanhua, S. , 2010, “ Effect of Charge Density and Oxygen Concentration on Emissions in a High Density-LTC Diesel Engine by Retarding Intake Valve Timing and Raising Boost Pressure,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1261.
Navrátil, J. , 2006, “ Two-Stage Turbocharger Matching for a Light Duty Diesel Engine,” Engine Simulation, Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd., Prague, Czech Republic,” accessed Nov. 23, 2018, https://zh.scribd.com/document/89992592/2-Stage-Turbo-Match
Lee, B. , Filipi, Z. , Assanis, D. , and Jung, D. , 2009, “ Simulation-Based Assessment of Various Dual-Stage Boosting Systems in Terms of Performance and Fuel Economy Improvements,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1471.
Byungchan, L. , 2009, Dual-Stage Boosting Systems: Modeling of Configurations, Matching and Boost Control Options, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Benson, R. S. , and Svetnicka, F. V. , 1974, “ Two-Stage Turbocharging of Diesel Engines: A Matching Procedure and an Experimental Investigation,” SAE Paper No. 740740.
Plianos, A. , and Stobart, R. , 2008, “ Modeling and Control of Diesel Engines Equipped With a Two-Stage Turbo-System,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1018.
Galindo, J. , Serrano, J. R. , Climent, H. , and Varnier, O. , 2010, “ Impact of Two-Stage Turbocharging Architectures on Pumping Losses of Automotive Engines Based on an Analytical Model,” Energy Convers. Manage., 51(10), pp. 1958–1969. [CrossRef]
Tinschmann, G., Holand, P., Benetschik, H., and Eilts P., 2008, “ Potential of Two-Stage Turbocharging on MAN Diesel's 32/44 CR,” MTZ Worldwide, 69(10), pp. 14–21. [CrossRef]
Millo, F., Gianoglio Bernardi, M., and Delneri, D., 2011, “ Computational Analysis of Internal and External EGR Strategies Combined With Miller Cycle Concept for a Two Stage Turbocharged Medium Speed Marine Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1142.
Watel, E. , Pagot, A. , and Pacaud, P. , 2010, “ Matching and Evaluating Methods for Euro 6 and Efficient Two-Stage Turbocharging Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1229.
Zhao, R. , Zhuge, W. , Zhang, Y. , Yang, M. , Martinez-Botas, R. , and Yin, Y. , 2015, “ Study of Two-Stage Turbine Characteristic and Its Influence on Turbo-Compound Engine Performance,” Energy Convers. Manage., 95, pp. 414–423. [CrossRef]
Knecht, W. , 2008, “ Diesel Engine Development in View of Reduced Emission Standards,” Energy, 33(2), pp. 264–271. [CrossRef]
Su, W. H. , Lin, T. J. , and Pei, Y. Q. , 2003, “ A Compound Technology for HCCI Combustion in a DI Diesel Engine Based on the Multi-Pulse Injection and the BUMP Combustion Chamber,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0741.
Heywood, J. B. , 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Two-stage turbocharger configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Flow chart of process for matching two-stage turbocharger

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Minimum drive power calculated under ideal operating conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effect of intercooler temperature on drive power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of efficiency of HP and LP compressors on drive power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Full-load operation in the two-stage turbocharger: (a) full-load operation in the HP compressor and (b) full-load operation in the LP compressor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Drive power distribution under full load condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Torque under full load condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Entire range of operation of the two-stage compressor system: (a) entire range of operation of HP compressor and (b) entire range of operation of LP compressor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Speed/load contour plot depicting BSFC when using two-stage turbocharger

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Speed/load contour plot depicting percentage improvement in BSFC when using two-stage turbocharger relative to that when using conventional single turbocharger



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In