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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flow Field and Wall Temperature Measurements for Reacting Flow in a Lean Premixed Swirl Stabilized Can Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Suhyeon Park

Mem. ASME
Advanced Propulsion and Power Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: suhyeon.park@vt.edu

David Gomez-Ramirez

Advanced Propulsion and Power Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: gomezd@vt.edu

Siddhartha Gadiraju

Advanced Propulsion and Power Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: siddhu@vt.edu

Sandeep Kedukodi

Advanced Propulsion and Power Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: ksandeep@vt.edu

Srinath V. Ekkad

Professor
Fellow ASME
Advanced Propulsion and Power Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: sekkad@ncsu.edu

Hee-Koo Moon

Solar Turbine Inc.,
San Diego, CA 92186
e-mail: heekoomoon@gmail.com

Yong Kim

Solar Turbine Inc.,
San Diego, CA 92186
e-mail: KIM_YONG_W@solarturbines.com

Ram Srinivasan

Solar Turbine Inc.,
San Diego, CA 92186
e-mail: Srinivasan_Ram@solarturbines.com

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Schlumberger, Houston, TX 77584.

3Present address: Siemens, Charlotte, NC 28273.

4Present address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

5Present address: Department of Power Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 8, 2017; final manuscript received December 30, 2017; published online May 24, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 091503 (May 24, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1607; doi: 10.1115/1.4039462 History: Received November 08, 2017; Revised December 30, 2017

In this study, we provide detailed wall heat flux measurements and flow details for reacting flow conditions in a model combustor. Heat transfer measurements inside a gas turbine combustor provide one of the most serious challenges for gas turbine researchers. Gas turbine combustor improvements require accurate measurement and prediction of reacting flows. Flow and heat transfer measurements inside combustors under reacting flow conditions remain a challenge. The mechanisms of thermal energy transfer must be investigated by studying the flow characteristics and associated heat load. This paper experimentally investigates the effects of combustor operating conditions on the reacting flow in an optical single can combustor. The swirling flow was generated by an industrial lean premixed, axial swirl fuel nozzle. Planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) data were analyzed to understand the characteristics of the flow field. Liner surface temperatures were measured in reacting condition with an infrared camera for a single case. Experiments were conducted at Reynolds numbers ranging between 50,000 and 110,000 (with respect to the nozzle diameter, DN); equivalence ratios between 0.55 and 0.78; and pilot fuel split ratios of 0 to 6%. Characterizing the impingement location on the liner, and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution were a fundamental part of the investigation. Self-similar characteristics were observed at different reacting conditions. Swirling exit flow from the nozzle was found to be unaffected by the operating conditions with little effect on the liner. Comparison between reacting and nonreacting flows (NR) yielded very interesting and striking differences.

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References

Heitor, M. V. , and Whitelaw, J. H. , 1986, “ Velocity, Temperature, and Species Characteristics of the Flow in a Gas-Turbine Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 64(1), pp. 1–32. [CrossRef]
Lilley, D. G. , 1977, “ Swirl Flows in Combustion: A Review,” AIAA J., 15(8), pp. 1063–1078. [CrossRef]
Syred, N. , and Beér, J. M. , 1974, “ Combustion in Swirling Flows: A Review,” Combust. Flame, 23(2), pp. 143–201. [CrossRef]
Weigand, P. , Meier, W. , Duan, X. R. , Stricker, W. , and Aigner, M. , 2006, “ Investigations of Swirl Flames in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor,” Combust. Flame, 144(1–2), pp. 205–224. [CrossRef]
Stopper, U. , Meier, W. , Sadanandan, R. , Stöhr, M. , Aigner, M. , and Bulat, G. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Industrial Gas Turbine Flames Including Quantification of Pressure Influence on Flow Field, Fuel/Air Premixing and Flame Shape,” Combust. Flame, 160(10), pp. 2103–2118. [CrossRef]
Ji, J. , and Gore, J. P. , 2002, “ Flow Structure in Lean Premixed Swirling Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 29(1), pp. 861–867. [CrossRef]
Berrino, M. , Lengani, D. , Satta, F. , Ubaldi, M. , Zunino, P. , Colantuoni, S. , and Di Martino, P. , 2015, “Investigation of the Dynamics of an Ultra Low NOx Injection System by POD Data Post-Processing,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42638.
Gomez-Ramirez, D. , Ekkad, S. V. , Moon, H.-K. , Kim, Y. , and Srinivasan, R. , 2017, “ Isothermal Coherent Structures and Turbulent Flow Produced by a Gas Turbine Combustor Lean Pre-Mixed Swirl Fuel Nozzle,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 81, pp. 187–201. [CrossRef]
Gomez-Ramirez, D. , Kedukodi, S. , Ekkad, S. V. , Moon, H.-K. X. , Kim, Y. , and Srinivasan, R. , 2017, “ Investigation of Isothermal Convective Heat Transfer in an Optical Combustor With a Low-Emissions Swirl Fuel Nozzle,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 114, pp. 65–76. [CrossRef]
Gomez-Ramirez, D. , 2016, “Heat Transfer and Flow Measurements in an Atmospheric Lean Pre-Mixed Combustor,” Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/71812
Gomez-Ramirez, D. , Kedukodi, S. , Gadiraju, S. , Ekkad, S. V. , Moon, H.-K. , Kim, Y. , and Srinivasan, R. , 2016, “Gas Turbine Combustor Rig Development and Initial Observations at Cold and Reacting Flow Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57825.
Kedukodi, S. , Ekkad, S. , Moon, H. K. , Kim, Y. , and Srinivasan, R. , 2015, “Numerical Investigation of Effect of Geometry Changes in a Model Combustor on Swirl Dominated Flow and Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43035.
Kedukodi, S. , and Ekkad, S. , 2015, “Effect of Downstream Contraction on Liner Heat Transfer in a Gas Turbine Combustor Swirl Flow,” ASME Paper No. GTINDIA2015-1206.

Figures

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Fig. 4

Schematic of PIV flow field measurement at the model combustor rig

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Fig. 5

Photograph of PIV measurement in reacting flow: (a) flame luminosity, (b) glow from injected seeding particles, and (c) scattering from laser sheet

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Fig. 3

Schematic of premixing axial swirl fuel nozzle installed in the combustor rig

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Fig. 2

Photograph of the optical combustor rig with the PIV system in place (top)

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Fig. 1

Schematic of optical combustor test rig

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Fig. 6

Snapshots of instantaneous flow field: (top) nonreacting flow, (bottom) reacting flow. There are no values at white spots.

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Fig. 10

Mean velocity and TKE comparison with different pilot fuel split ratio (fixed conditions: Reynolds number: 50,000, ϕ: 0.65) ((a) pilot 6%, velocity, (b) pilot 4%, velocity, (c) pilot 0%, velocity, (d) pilot 6%, TKE, (e) pilot 4%, TKE, and (f) pilot 0%, TKE)

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Fig. 11

Mean velocity and TKE comparison with different Reynolds numbers (fixed conditions: pilot 6%, ϕ: 0.65 for (a), (b), (d), and (e), ϕ: 0.55 for (c), (f))

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Fig. 9

Mean velocity and TKE comparison with different equivalence ratios (fixed conditions: Reynolds number: 50,000, pilot: 6%) ((a) ϕ: 0.55, velocity, (b) ϕ: 0.65, velocity, (c) ϕ: 0.78, velocity, (d) ϕ: 0.55, TKE, (e) ϕ: 0.65, TKE, and (f) ϕ: 0.78, TKE)

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Fig. 7

Mean velocity and TKE comparison between nonreacting and reacting flow: ((a) and (c)) nonreacting NR1, Re 50k, and ((b) and (d)) reacting R1 ϕ: 0.65, pilot: 6%, Re 50k (fixed condition: Reynolds number: 50k)

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Fig. 8

Velocity component profiles comparison: (a) nonreacting NR1, Re 50k and (b) reacting R1 ϕ: 0.65, pilot: 6%, Re 50k (fixed condition: Reynolds number: 50k)

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Fig. 13

Procedure to determine impingement location: left: axial velocity profiles (along the x/DN direction) near the maximum radial location (rmax), (right) extrapolation of zero velocity location

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Fig. 16

Calibrated liner temperature field measured with infrared camera, at outer wall (0 < r/DN < 0.9) and at inner wall (r/DN < 0). Dashed line rectangles show regions of interest for inner wall and outer wall. TC1 and TC2 labels indicate thermocouple locations attached on liner walls.

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Fig. 12

Velocity component profiles comparison for R2-R7 conditions at x/DN = 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2. ((a) R2: ϕ 0.55 (b) R3: ϕ 0.78 (c) R4: pilot, (d) R5: pilot, (e) R6: Re 75k, and (f) R7: Re).

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Fig. 14

Averaged near wall profiles; Left: axial velocity, Right: TKE in nonreacting flows and reacting flows, at radial location 1.3≤r /DN≤1.4

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Fig. 15

Schematic of wall temperature measurement with infrared thermographic camera. Region of interest is indicated.

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Fig. 17

Liner temperature profile at inner wall and outer wall. 2D measurements were averaged in radial/tangential direction

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Fig. 18

Measured heat flux on the liner in reacting flow (R1 condition)

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