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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

A Numerical Investigation on NO2 Formation in a Natural Gas–Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu Li

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
West Virginia University,
Morgantown, WV 26506
e-mail: liyu.academic@gmail.com

Hailin Li

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
West Virginia University,
Morgantown, WV 26506
e-mail: hailin.li@mail.wvu.edu

Hongsheng Guo

National Research Council,
Ottawa, ON K1A OR6, Canada
e-mail: Hongsheng.guo@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Yongzhi Li

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: liyongzhi@enn.cn

Mingfa Yao

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: y_mingfa@tju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 16, 2017; final manuscript received February 19, 2018; published online May 29, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 092804 (May 29, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1661; doi: 10.1115/1.4039734 History: Received December 16, 2017; Revised February 19, 2018

This research numerically simulates the formation and destruction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a natural gas (NG)–diesel dual fuel engine using commercial CFD software converge coupled with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism consisting of 45 species and 142 reactions. The model was validated by comparing the simulated cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions with experimental data. The validated model was used to simulate the formation and destruction of NO2 in a NG–diesel dual fuel engine. The formation of NO2 and its correlation with the local concentration of nitric oxide (NO), methane, and temperature were examined and discussed. It was revealed that NO2 was mainly formed in the interface region between the hot NO-containing combustion products and the relatively cool unburnt methane–air mixture. The NO2 formed at the early combustion stage is usually destructed to NO after the complete oxidation of methane and n-heptane, while NO2 formed during the postcombustion process survives through the expansion process and exits the engine. The increased NO2 emissions from NG–diesel dual fuel engines was formed during the post combustion process due to higher concentration of HO2 produced during the oxidation process of the unburned methane at low temperature. A detailed analysis of the chemical reactions occurring in the NO2 containing zone consisting of NO2, NO, O2, methane, etc., was conducted using a quasi-homogeneous constant volume (QHCV) model to identify the key reactions and species dominating NO2 formation and destruction. The HO2 produced during the postcombustion process of methane was identified as the primary species dominating the formation of NO2 during the post combustion expansion process. The simulation revealed the key reaction path for the formation of HO2 noted as CH4 → CH3 → CH2O → HCO → HO2, with conversion ratios of 98%, 74%, 90%, 98%, accordingly. The backward reaction of OH + NO2 = NO + HO2 consumed 34% of HO2 for the production of NO2.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Computational mesh

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Fig. 2

Model validation against cylinder pressure and HRR at 4.9 bar BMEP and 1420 rpm, measured in Ref. [18]

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Fig. 3

Variation of NO2/NOx ratio with NG substitution ratio. Experimental data was measured using a single cylinder dual fuel engine reported in literature [29].

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Fig. 4

Variation of HRR, peak cylinder temperature, the total mass of n-heptane (NC7H16), methane (CH4), HO2, OH, NO, and NO2 with change in CA

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Fig. 5

Temperature and distribution of NO, NO2, and methane in cylinder simulated at different CAs

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Fig. 6

Bulk gas region containing 95% NO2, which was selected to develop the input data for QHCV model

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Fig. 7

Variation of temperature profile and NO, NO2 molar fraction with changes in time simulated using QHCV model

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Fig. 8

Reaction path analysis of the effect of methane to NO2 production

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Fig. 9

Effect of initial temperature and ER on conversion factor

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Fig. 10

The distribution of NO and NO2 in ER–T diagram over the combustion period. The number marked in Figure represents combustion stage.

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