Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Thermodynamic Considerations Related to Knock: Results From an Engine Cycle Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Jerald A. Caton

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843–3123

1Although autoignition may occur without knock, knock requires autoignition.

2A small amount of knock, however, may be beneficial relative to performance since the last small amount of fuel is consumed rapidly.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 19, 2018; final manuscript received February 26, 2018; published online May 29, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 092805 (May 29, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1078; doi: 10.1115/1.4039750 History: Received February 19, 2018; Revised February 26, 2018

The design and development of high efficiency spark-ignition engines continues to be limited by the consideration of knock. Although the topic of spark knock has been the subject of comprehensive research since the early 1900s, little has been reported on the coupling of the engine thermodynamics and knock. This work uses an engine cycle simulation together with a submodel for the knock phenomena to explore these connections. First, the autoignition characteristics as represented by a recent (2014) Arrhenius expression for the reaction time of the end gases are examined for a range of temperatures and pressures. In spite of the exponential dependence on temperature, pressure appears to dominate the ignition time for the conditions examined. Higher pressures (and higher temperatures) tend to enhance the potential for knock. Second, knock is determined as function of engine design and operating parameters. The trends are consistent with expectations, and the results provide a systematic presentation of knock occurrence. Engine parameters explored include compression ratio, engine speed, inlet pressure, start of combustion, heat transfer, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Changes of cylinder pressures and temperatures of the unburned zone as engine parameters were varied are shown to be directly responsible for the changes of the knock characteristics.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The reaction time from Chen et al. [12] correlation as a functions of pressure for temperatures of 500, 600, and 1000 K. The cases for compression ratios of 4, 8, and 12 are denoted with the circles.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The accumulated time and the composite reaction time as functions of crank angle for compression ratios of 7, 8, and 12

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The knock integral as functions of crank angle for compression ratios of 4, 6, 8, and 12

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The knock intensity as functions of the compression ratio for engine speeds of 1000 and 1500 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The knock integral as a functions of crank angle for engine speeds of 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The knock integral as functions of crank angle for inlet pressures of 75, 85, and 95 kPa

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The knock integral as a function of crank angle for cooled EGR levels of 0%, 15%, and 30% for the case with an engine speed of 1000 rpm and a compression ratio of 10

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The bmep as functions of cooled EGR for the 1000 rpm and 10 compression ratio case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The knock integral as a function of crank angle for adiabatic EGR levels of 0%, 15%, and 30% for the case with an engine speed of 1000 rpm and a compression ratio of 10

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The knock integral as a functions of crank angle for the base case for three correlations for the reaction time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The knock integral as a functions of crank angle for the base case for three correlations for the cylinder heat transfer




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