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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Optimization of the Charge Motion in Internal Combustion Engines Driven by Sewage Gas for Combined Heat and Power Units

[+] Author and Article Information
Lucas Konstantinoff

Department of Technology and Life Sciences,
Engines and Emissions,
Management Center Innsbruck,
Innsbruck 6020, Tirol, Austria
e-mail: lucas.konstantinoff@mci.edu

Lukas Möltner

Professor
Department of Technology and Life Sciences,
Management Center Innsbruck,
Innsbruck 6020, Tirol, Austria
e-mail: lukas.moeltner@mci.edu

Martin Pillei, Thomas Steiner, Thomas Dornauer

Department of Technology and Life Sciences,
Management Center Innsbruck,
Innsbruck 6020, Tirol, Austria

Günther Herdin

CEO
PGES GmbH,
Jenbach 6200, Tirol, Austria

Dominik Mairegger

PGES GmbH,
Jenbach 6200, Tirol, Austria
e-mail: g.herdin@prof-ges.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 1, 2018; final manuscript received March 2, 2018; published online June 19, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(10), 102805 (Jun 19, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1106; doi: 10.1115/1.4039756 History: Received March 01, 2018; Revised March 02, 2018

In this study, the influence of the charge motion on the internal combustion in a spark ignition sewage gas-driven engine (150 kW) for combined heat and power (CHP) units was investigated. For this purpose, the geometry of the combustion chamber in the immediate vicinity to the inlet valve seats was modified. The geometrical modification measures were conducted iteratively by integrative determination of the swirl motion on a flow bench, by laser-optical methods and consecutively by combustion analysis on a test engine. Two different versions of cylinder heads were characterized by dimensionless flow and swirl numbers prior to testing their on-engine performance. Combustion analysis was conducted with a cylinder pressure indication system for partial and full load, meeting the mandatory NOx limit of 500 mg m−3. Subsuming the flow bench results, the new valve seat design has a significant enhancing impact on the swirl motion but it also leads to disadvantages concerning the volumetric efficiency. A comparative consideration of the combustion rate delivers that the increased swirl motion results in a faster combustion, hence in a higher efficiency. In summary, the geometrical modifications close to the valve seat result in increased turbulence intensity. It was proven that this intensification raises the ratio of efficiency by 1.6%.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Potential gain in efficiency with optimized burning velocities expressed by varying volume ratios [1]

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Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of swirl, tumble, and squish flow patterns and valve seat construction and geometries [1]

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Fig. 3

Baseline (left) and new HiGas (right) cylinder head with sickle-shaped cuts near the inlet valve seat [1]

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Fig. 4

Schematic setup of the static flow bench [1]

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Fig. 5

Schematic setup of the PIV test bench [1]

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Fig. 6

Images taken at PIV test bench showing the cylinder head sealing surface and added seeding

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Fig. 7

Droplet size distribution of seeding measured by laser diffraction and of a Rosin Rammler fit

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Fig. 8

Schematic setup of the test engine [1]

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Fig. 9

Swirl and flow coefficients from static flow bench (left column) compared to PIV flow bench air flow pattern from optimized cylinder head (center column) and reference cylinder head (right column)

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Fig. 10

Cylinder pressure and heat release curves over crank angle for loads of 50%PISO, 75%PISO, and 100%PISO [1]: (a) set load at 75 kW, (b) set load at 112 kW, and (c) set load at 150 kW

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Fig. 11

Comparison of combustion performance at all tested load conditions [1]

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