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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Experimental Validation of a Three-Component Surrogate for Sasol-Isoparaffinic Kerosene in Single Cylinder Diesel Engine and Ignition Quality Tester

[+] Author and Article Information
Samy Alkhayat

Mechanical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: Samy.alkhayat1@gmail.com

Manan Trivedi

Mechanical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: manan.trivedi2@wayne.edu

Naeim Henein

Mechanical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Room 2121,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: henein@eng.wayne.edu

Sampad Mukhopadhyay

Mechanical Engineering,
Wayne State University,
5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: Sampad.gre@gmail.com

Peter Schihl

U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC,
6305 E 11 Mile Road,
Warren, MI 48092
e-mail: peter.j.schihl.civ@mail.mil

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 3, 2017; final manuscript received February 26, 2018; published online May 11, 2018. Editor: David Wisler. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(8), 082801 (May 11, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1601; doi: 10.1115/1.4039805 History: Received November 03, 2017; Revised February 26, 2018

Surrogates development is important to extensively investigate the combustion behavior of fuels. Development of comprehensive surrogates has been focusing on matching chemical and physical properties of their target fuel to mimic its atomization, evaporation, mixing, and auto-ignition behavior. More focus has been given to matching the derived cetane number (DCN) as a measure of the auto-ignition quality. In this investigation, we carried out experimental validation of a three-component surrogate for Sasol-Isoparaffinic Kerosene (IPK) in ignition quality tester (IQT) and in an actual diesel engine. The surrogate fuel is composed of three components (46% iso-cetane, 44% decalin, and 10% n-nonane on a volume basis). The IQT experiments were conducted as per ASTM D6890-10a. The engine experiments were conducted at 1500 rpm, two engine loads, and two injection timings. Analysis of ignition delay (ID), peak pressure, peak rate of heat release (RHR), and other combustion phasing parameters showed a closer match in the IQT than in the diesel engine. Comparison between the surrogate combustion behavior in the diesel engine and IQT revealed that matching the DCN of the surrogate to its respective target fuel did not result in the same negative temperature coefficient (NTC) profile—which led to unmatched combustion characteristics in the high temperature combustion (HTC) regimes, despite the same auto-ignition and low temperature combustion (LTC) profiles. Moreover, a comparison between the combustion behaviors of the two fuels in the IQT is not consistent with the comparison in the diesel engine, which suggests that the surrogate validation in a single-cylinder diesel engine should be part of the surrogate development methodology, particularly for low ignition quality fuels.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cylinder pressure, RHR, and fuel pressure traces for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP1

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Fig. 2

Zoomed RHR showing the LTC regime for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP1

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Fig. 3

Start of combustion location defined as the lowest point on pressure trace [31]

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Fig. 4

A comparison of ID definitions for Sasol-IPK which shows two-stage combustion [32]

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Fig. 5

Normalized cumulative heat release for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP1

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Fig. 6

Cylinder pressure, RHR, and fuel pressure traces for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP2

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Fig. 7

Zoomed RHR showing the LTC zone for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP2

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Fig. 8

Normalized cumulative heat release for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP2

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Fig. 9

Cylinder pressure, RHR, and fuel pressure traces for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP3

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Fig. 10

Zoomed RHR showing the LTC zone for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP3

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Fig. 11

Normalized Cu. heat release for surrogate-S1 and Sasol-IPK at KP3

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Fig. 12

Pressure, needle lift, RHR, and cumulative RHR traces for IPK and S1 at three different charge temperatures [28]

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Fig. 13

Ignition delay defined from the zoomed pressure and needle lift traces for IPK and S1 at test temperatures of, 536 °C, 551 °C, and 566 °C

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Fig. 14

Ignition delay deviation (referenced to IPK) from IQT data and from HATZ data

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Fig. 15

Peak pressure deviation (referenced to IPK) from IQT data and from HATZ data

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Fig. 16

Peak RHR deviation (referenced to IPK) from IQT data and from HATZ data

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Fig. 17

Peak pressure location deviation (referenced to IPK) from IQT data and from HATZ data

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Fig. 18

Peak RHR location (LPPC) deviation (reference to IPK) from IQT data and from HATZ data

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Fig. 19

X-bar and S charts for 50 sets of data selected randomly considering a subgroup size of 2 for the peak pressure values at KP1 for IPK

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