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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Partially Premixed Combustion Application for Diesel Power Improvement

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Walker, Robert Kelso, Len Hamilton, Dianne Luning Prak, Jim Cowart

US Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21402

Kevin Bowes

NAVAIR,
PAX River NAS, MD 20670

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 20, 2018; final manuscript received March 5, 2018; published online May 24, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(9), 092801 (May 24, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1082; doi: 10.1115/1.4039809 History: Received February 20, 2018; Revised March 05, 2018

A partially premixed combustion (PPC) approach was applied in a single cylinder diesel research engine in order to characterize engine power improvements. PPC is an alternative advanced combustion approach that generally results in lower engine-out soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission, with a moderate penalty in engine-out unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. In this study, PPC is accomplished with a minority fraction of jet fuel injected into the intake manifold, while the majority fraction of jet fuel is delivered directly to the combustion chamber near the start of combustion (SOC). Four compression ratios (CR) were studied. Exhaust emissions plus exhaust opacity and particulate measurements were performed during the experiments in addition to fast in-cylinder combustion metrics. It was seen that as CR increased, the soot threshold equivalence ratio decreased for conventional diesel combustion; however, this afforded an increased opportunity for higher levels of port injected fuel leading to power increases from 5% to 23% as CR increased from 14 to 21.5. PPC allowed for these power increases (defined by a threshold opacity level of 3%) due to smaller particles (and lower overall number of particles) in the exhaust that influence measured opacity less significantly than larger and more numerous conventional diesel combustion exhaust particulates. Carbon monoxide levels at the higher PPC-driven power levels were only modestly higher, although NOx was generally lower due to the overall enriched operation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Chromatogram of JP-5

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Fig. 2

Percentage of total fuel port injected for CRs

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Fig. 3

PPC and Conv. IDI operation comparison of power, efficiency, and exhaust characteristics at CR 16.5

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Fig. 4

PPC and Conv. IDI operation comparison of combustion phasing and exhaust characteristics at CR 16.5

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Fig. 5

In-cylinder pressure trace and cumulative heat release for 9.2–9.3 bar cases

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Fig. 6

Exhaust opacity as a function of engine load

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Fig. 7

Start of Injection as a function of engine load

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Fig. 8

Ten percent heat release location as a function of engine load

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Fig. 9

Ignition delay as a function of engine load

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Fig. 10

Ten to ninety percent heat release duration as a function of engine load

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Fig. 11

Peak in-cylinder pressure as a function of engine load

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Fig. 12

Exhaust NOx concentration as a function of engine load

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Fig. 13

Overall fuel–air equivalence ratio as a function of engine load

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Fig. 14

Equivalence ratio at the 3% soot limit and peak average predicted combustion temperature as f(CR)

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Fig. 15

CR21.5 (solid line) and CR14 (dashed line) in-cylinder pressure, volume, and average predicted temperature

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Fig. 16

Thermal efficiency as a function of engine load

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Fig. 17

Indicated efficiency versus NOx

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Fig. 18

Exhaust CO concentration as a function of engine load

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Fig. 19

Exhaust soot-particulate concentration as a function of particle size

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Fig. 20

Maximum PPC port fuel injection fraction and PPC specific power increase over Conv. IDI operation

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