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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Combustion Model for a Homogeneous Turbocharged Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Sedigheh Tolou

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
1497 Engineering Research CT,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: toloused@egr.msu.edu

Ravi Teja Vedula

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
1497 Engineering Research CT,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: vedravitej@gmail.com

Harold Schock

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
1497 Engineering Research CT,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: schock@egr.msu.edu

Guoming Zhu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
1497 Engineering Research CT,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: zhug@egr.msu.edu

Yong Sun

Tenneco Inc.,
3901 Willis Road,
Grass Lake, MI 49240
e-mail: YSun5@tenneco.com

Adam Kotrba

Tenneco Inc.,
3901 Willis Road,
Grass Lake, MI 49240
e-mail: akotrba@tenneco.com

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 27, 2018; final manuscript received March 8, 2018; published online June 19, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(10), 102804 (Jun 19, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4039813 History: Received February 27, 2018; Revised March 08, 2018

Homogeneous charge is a preferred operation mode of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. However, a limited amount of work exists in the literature for combustion models of this mode of engine operation. Current work describes a model developed to study combustion in a homogeneous charge GDI engine. The model was validated using experimental data from a 1.6 L Ford EcoBoost® engine, tested at the U.S. EPA. The combustion heat release was approximated using a double-Wiebe function, to account for the rapid initial premixed combustion followed by a gradual diffusion-like state of combustion, as observed in this GDI engine. Variables of Wiebe correlations were adjusted into a semipredictive combustion model. The effectiveness of semipredictive combustion model was tested in prediction of in-cylinder pressures. The root-mean-square (RMS) errors between experiments and numerical results were within 2.5% of in-cylinder peak pressures during combustion. The semipredictive combustion model was further studied to develop a predictive combustion model. The performance of predictive combustion model was examined by regenerating the experimental cumulative heat release. The heat release analysis developed for the GDI engine was further applied to a dual mode, turbulent jet ignition (DM-TJI) engine. DM-TJI is a distributed combustion technology with the potential to provide diesel-like efficiencies and minimal engine-out emissions for spark-ignition engines. The DM-TJI engine was observed to offer a faster burn rate and lower in-cylinder heat transfer compared to the GDI engine.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

In-cylinder heat release rate at 2000 rpm/120 N·m. The plots for 120 and 180 N·m were shifted to the left.

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Fig. 2

Cumulative heat release results at 2000 rpm/120 N·m

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Fig. 3

Engine ignition delay—all cases studied

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Fig. 4

Cylinder pressures, experiments versus numerical predictions at 2000 rpm

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Fig. 5

Cylinder pressures, experiments versus numerical predictions—all cases studied; solid and dashed line represent the experiments and numerical prediction, respectively. In subplots for speeds from 1500 rpm to 3000 rpm, traces with low, medium, and high peak pressures represent loads of 60 N·m, 120 N·m, and 180 N·m, respectively. Traces for 3500 rpm do not follow the general trend as others and the pressure traces for 180 N·m have peak pressures slightly lower than 120 N·m. Subplots for 4000 rpm and 4500 rpm represent loads of 60 N·m and 120 N·m with the low and high peak pressures, respectively.

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Fig. 6

Cumulative normalized apparent heat release, direct calculations versus developed linear model predictions at 2000 rpm

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Fig. 7

Cumulative normalized apparent heat release, direct calculations versus developed linear model predictions—all cases studied; solid and dashed line represent the experiments and numerical predictions, respectively. In each subplot, the traces for the cumulative heat release gradually shift to the right, as loads increase.

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Fig. 8

Intercooler, intake manifold, coolant, and exhaust manifold temperature—all cases studied. The load and speed associated with each of these case numbers can be found in Table 2.

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Fig. 9

In-cylinder temperature at spark timing for all the cases. The load and speed associated with each of these case numbers can be found in Table 2.

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Fig. 10

Double-Wiebe variables, direct calculations versus linear models predictions; solid and dashed line represent the direct calculations and models predictions, respectively. The load and speed associated with each of these case numbers can be found in Table 2.

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Fig. 11

Normalized apparent heat release, homogeneous turbocharged GDI engine versus DM-TJI; speed of 1500 rpm and IMEPg ∼ 6 bar

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Fig. 12

Normalized in-cylinder heat transfer, homogeneous turbocharged GDI engine versus DM-TJI; speed of 1500 rpm and IMEPg ∼ 6 bar

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