Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Hybrid-Electric Turbocharger and High-Speed SiC Variable-Frequency Drive Using Sensorless Control Algorithm

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew L. Carpenter

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: acarpenter@mainstream-engr.com

Troy L. Beechner

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: tbeechner@mainstream-engr.com

Brian E. Tews

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: bet@mainstream-engr.com

Paul E. Yelvington

Mainstream Engineering Corporation,
Rockledge, FL 32955
e-mail: pyelvington@mainstream-engr.com

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 20, 2018; final manuscript received March 26, 2018; published online August 6, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 122801 (Aug 06, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4040012 History: Received February 20, 2018; Revised March 26, 2018

Electrically assisted engine boosting systems lend themselves to better throttle response, wider effective operating ranges, and can provide the ability to extract excess energy during deceleration and high-load events (and store it in a vehicle's onboard batteries). This can lead to better overall vehicle performance, emissions, and efficiency while allowing for further engine downsizing and increased power density. In this research effort, a hybrid-electric turbocharger, variable-frequency drive (VFD), and novel sensorless control algorithm were developed. An 11 kW permanent-magnet (PM) machine was coupled to a commercial turbocharger via an in-line, bolt-on housing attached to the compressor inlet. A high-efficiency, high-temperature VFD, consisting of custom control and power electronics, was also developed. The VFD uses SiC MOSFETS to achieve high-switching frequency and can be cooled using an existing engine coolant loop operating at up to 105 °C at an efficiency greater than 98%. A digital sliding mode-observer sensorless speed control algorithm was created to command and regulate speed and achieved ramp rates of over 68,000 rpm/s. A two-machine benchtop motor/generator test stand was constructed for initial testing and tuning of the VFD and sensorless control algorithm. A gas blow-down test stand was constructed to test the mechanical operation of the hybrid-electric turbocharger and speed control using the VFD. In addition, a liquid-pump cart was assembled for high-temperature testing of the VFD. Initial on-engine testing is planned for later this year. This paper intends to present a design overview of the in-line, hybrid-electric device, VFD, and performance characterization of the electronics and sensorless control algorithm.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
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Fig. 1

General HE-T/C System Architecture (adapted from Beechner and Carpenter [16])

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Fig. 2

PMSM rotor sleeve and stator

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Fig. 3

Cutaway CAD rendering of IMA housing

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Fig. 4

Prototype HE-T/C with IMA housing mounted to turbocharger

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Fig. 5

VFD environmentally sealed enclosure and externally sealed, integrated liquid cold plate (top-right)

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Fig. 6

High-level system control schematic [16]

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Fig. 7

Digital SMO control algorithm [16]

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Fig. 8

Open-loop blow-down turbine test stand flow diagram

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Fig. 9

Predicted performance map showing shaft power (W) extracted from turbocharger (represented by color map) to maintain intake pressure <2.5 bar along with test points of the HHDDT transient drive cycle

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Fig. 10

Predicted performance map showing HE-T/C provides additional low-speed engine torque compared to the conventional wastegated turbocharger baseline

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Fig. 11

HE-T/C rotating assembly rotordynamic model

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Fig. 12

Fourth mode—88,467 rpm

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Fig. 13

FEA analysis of IMA housing showing stress contours (left) and FoS contours (right)

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Fig. 14

X–Y–Z cutplanes of fluid and housing temperture profile (top), Z cutplane of velocity contours (middle), and Y–Z cutplane of pressure contours (bottom)

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Fig. 15

Experimental comparison of digital sliding mode-observer predicted (top) and sensor measured (bottom) motor theta

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Fig. 16

Back EMF voltage and VFD output current for 68 kRPM/s IMA ramp rate for acceleration from 10 to 50 kRPM

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Fig. 17

Comparison of VFD efficiency and SiC MOSFET junction temperature versus total VFD output power

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Fig. 18

Normalized VFD power for a constant turbine speed



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