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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Manufacturing, Materials, and Metallurgy

Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials for Engine Exhaust Systems on Next-Generation Vertical Lift Vehicles

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael J. Walock

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Michael.j.walock.civ@mail.mil

Vann Heng

The Boeing Company,
Huntington Beach, CA 92647
e-mail: Vann.heng@boeing.com

Andy Nieto

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Andy.nieto2.ctr@mail.mil

Anindya Ghoshal

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mails: Anindo_ghoshal@yahoo.com;
anindya.ghoshal.civ@mail.mil

Muthuvel Murugan

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Muthuvel.murugan.civ@mail.mil

Dan Driemeyer

The Boeing Company,
St. Louis, MO 63145
e-mail: Dan.driemeyer@boeing.com

Contributed by the Manufacturing Materials and Metallurgy Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 18, 2018; final manuscript received April 11, 2018; published online June 25, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(10), 102101 (Jun 25, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1134; doi: 10.1115/1.4040011 History: Received March 18, 2018; Revised April 11, 2018

Future gas turbine engines will operate at significantly higher temperatures (∼1800 °C) than current engines (∼1400 °C) for improved efficiency and power density. As a result, the current set of metallic components (titanium-based and nickel-based superalloys) will be replaced with ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). These materials can survive the higher operating temperatures of future engines at significant weight savings over the current metallic components, i.e., advanced ceramic components will facilitate more powerful engines. While oxide-based CMCs may not be suitable candidates for hot-section components, they may be suitable for structural and/or exhaust components. However, a more thorough understanding of the performance under relevant environment of these materials is needed. To this end, this work investigates the high-temperature durability of a family of oxide–oxide CMCs (Ox–Ox CMCs) under an engine-relevant environment. Flat Ox–Ox CMC panels were cyclically exposed to temperatures up to 1150 °C, within 240 m/s (∼0.3 M) gas flows and hot sand impingement. Front and backside surface temperatures were monitored by a single-wavelength (SW) pyrometer and thermocouple, respectively. In addition, an infrared (IR) camera was used to evaluate the damage evolution of the samples during testing. Flash thermography nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to elucidate defects present before and after thermal exposure.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Evolution of high-temperature propulsion materials. Improvements in materials have led to dramatic improvements in turbine power densities, efficiencies, and lifetimes.

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Fig. 2

High-temperature CMC test specimen setup

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Fig. 3

High-temperature material evaluation using ARL jet burner rig

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Fig. 4

Temporal thermal profile distribution using infrared camera

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Fig. 5

Ox–Ox CMC testing sample with steel holder and jet burner flow direction

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Fig. 6

Pretest image Ox CMC laminate and hybrid CMC/BRI samples. Selected samples have a gray additive incorporated into the matrix.

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Fig. 7

Gray oxide CMC sample mounted in steel holder for durability testing in theHPIR. The cross represented the approximate location for the pyrometer measurements, and the arrow represented the approximate direction of the flow across the top of the sample and sample holder.

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Fig. 8

The HPIR, with a FLIR SC6700 IR camera for in situ temperature monitoring of the sample surface, at the U.S. ARL

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Fig. 9

Variation of emissivity with wavelength for different CMCs. The SW pyrometer has a spectral response of 7.9 μm; the IR camera (with neutral density filter) has a spectral response of 3–5 μm.

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Fig. 10

(a) Surface temperature data as measured with an SW pyrometer; (b) backside temperature data as measured by a thermocouple

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Fig. 11

Underdamped oscillations in the temperature data from the DAS-8k sample

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Fig. 12

Post-test: (a) optical image and (b) flash IR thermograph of the DAS-8k sample

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Fig. 13

Post-test: (a) optical and (b) flash IR thermograph of the RASL-12 sample

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Fig. 14

Post-test: (a) optical and (b) flash IR thermograph of the ASW sample

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Fig. 15

Post-test: (a) image and (b) flash IR thermograph for the WAM21 sample tested up to 1260 °C

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Fig. 16

Post-test: (a) image and (b) flash IR thermograph of the LAM21-6 sample

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Fig. 17

Plot of surface temperature versus time for selected specimens during phase 2 testing

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Fig. 18

Plot of backside temperature versus time for selected specimens during phase 2 testing

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Fig. 19

Post-test CMC specimens with molten sand pileup/CMAS accumulation and some occurrences of surface erosion

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Fig. 20

Thermography NDE images do not show any defect after the LAM21, N720 AM has been subjected to hot sand erosion test at a surface temperature of 2300 °F

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Fig. 21

Post-test thermography NDE of N720-AS CMC at 2000 °F reveals no defect

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Fig. 22

Post-test thermography NDE of N720-AM/BRI at 2300 °F reveals no defect. However, the edges do show some surface erosion.

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Fig. 23

Post-test images of N610-AS CMC at 1500 °F surface temperature sand ingestion/impingement show no surface erosion and are compared with pretest specimen images

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Fig. 24

Post-test images of N720-AS CMC/BRI subjected to 2000 °F show noticeable surface erosion at some areas and some CMAS/molten sand accumulation

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Fig. 25

Post-test images of N720-AS CMC/BRI undergoing 2300 °F surface temperature show significant surface erosion at some areas and CMAS/molten sand accumulation

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Fig. 26

Post-test N610-AS SW and N720-AS CMC wrapped BXA

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Fig. 27

Post-test thermography of RASW-3, SW-2 OML

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