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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Influence of Injection Parameters and Operating Conditions on Ignition and Combustion in Dual-Fuel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Marcus Grochowina

Institute of Thermodynamics,
Technical University of Munich,
Garching 85747, Germany
e-mail: Grochowina@td.mw.tum.de

Michael Schiffner, Simon Tartsch, Thomas Sattelmayer

Institute of Thermodynamics,
Technical University of Munich,
Garching 85747, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 22, 2018; final manuscript received March 6, 2018; published online June 25, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(10), 102809 (Jun 25, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1088; doi: 10.1115/1.4040089 History: Received February 22, 2018; Revised March 06, 2018

Dual-fuel (DF) engines offer great fuel flexibility since they can either run on gaseous or liquid fuels. In the case of diesel pilot-ignited DF engines, the main source of energy is provided by gaseous fuel, whereas the diesel fuel acts only as an ignition source. Therefore, a proper auto-ignition of the pilot fuel is of utmost importance for combustion in DF engines. However, auto-ignition of the pilot fuel suffers from lower compression temperatures of Miller or Atkinson valve timings. These valve timings are applied to increase efficiency and lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) engine emissions. In order to improve the ignition, it is necessary to understand which parameters influence the ignition in DF engines. For this purpose, experiments were conducted and the influence of parameters, such as injection pressure, pilot fuel quantity, compression temperature, and air–fuel (A/F) equivalence ratio of the homogenous natural gas–air mixture were investigated. The experiments were performed on a periodically chargeable combustion cell using optical high-speed recordings and thermodynamic measurement techniques for pressure and temperature. The study reveals that the quality of the diesel pilot ignition in terms of short ignition delay and a high number of ignited sprays significantly depends on the injection parameters and operating conditions. In most cases, the pilot fuel suffers from too high dilution due to its small quantity and long ignition delays. This results in a small number of ignited sprays and consequently leads to longer combustion durations. Furthermore, the experiments confirm that the natural gas of the background mixture influences the auto-ignition of the diesel pilot oil.

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Figures

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Sequences of a combustion cycle

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Preconditioning periphery

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Fig. 1

Optically accessible combustion cell

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High-speed images of the variation of the rail pressure

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Pressure traces of the variation of the rail pressure

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Pressure traces of the variation of the combustion chamber temperature

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High-speed images of the variation of the combustion chamber temperatures

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Influence of the mean combustion chamber temperature on the ignition delay, combustion duration, and number of ignited sprays

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Fig. 9

Influence of the rail pressure on the ignition delay, combustion duration, and number of ignited sprays

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Fig. 10

Pressure traces of the variation of diesel pilot quantity

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Fig. 11

High-speed images of the variation of the diesel pilot quantity

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Pressure traces of the variation of A/F equivalence ratio

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Influence of the diesel pilot fraction on the ignition delay, combustion duration, and number of ignited sprays

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Fig. 14

High-speed images of the variation of the air–fuel equivalence ratio

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Fig. 15

Influence of the A/F equivalence ratio on the ignition delay, combustion duration, and number of ignited sprays

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