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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Experimental Investigation of NOx Formation in a Dual Fuel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Luke Hagen

Hiltner Combustion Systems,
Ferndale, WA 98248
e-mail: lmh@hcs-nw.com

Baine Breaux

Hiltner Combustion Systems,
Ferndale, WA 98248
e-mail: bbb@hcs-nw.com

Michael Flory

Hiltner Combustion Systems,
Ferndale, WA 98248
e-mail: msf@hcs-nw.com

Joel Hiltner

Hiltner Combustion Systems,
Ferndale, WA 98248
e-mail: jdh@hcs-nw.com

Scott Fiveland

Caterpillar, Inc.,
Peoria, IL 61602
e-mail: Fiveland_Scott_B@cat.com

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 9, 2018; final manuscript received April 13, 2018; published online August 9, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 122802 (Aug 09, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1160; doi: 10.1115/1.4040179 History: Received April 09, 2018; Revised April 13, 2018

The North American oil and gas industry has experienced a market pull for dual fuel (DF) engines that can run on any ratio of fuels ranging from 100% diesel to a high proportion of field gas relative to diesel, while also meeting the U.S. Tier 4 Nonroad emissions standards. A DF engine must meet complex and at times competing requirements in terms of performance, fuel tolerance, and emissions. The challenges faced in designing a DF engine to meet all of the performance and emissions requirements require a detailed understanding of the trade-offs for each pollutant. This paper will focus on the details of NOx formation for high substitution DF engines. Experimental results have demonstrated that NOx emission trends (as a function of lambda) for DF engines differ from both traditional diesel engines and lean burn natural gas (NG) engines. For high energy substitution (>70%) conditions, NOx emissions are a function of the premixed gas lambda (λng) and contain a local minimum, with NOx increasing as lambda is either leaned or richened beyond the local minimum which occurs from approximately λng = 1.7 – 1.85. It is hypothesized that at richer conditions (λng < 1.7), NOx formed in the burning of gaseous fuel results in increased total NOx emissions. At leaner conditions (λng > 1.85), the NOx formed in the diesel post flame regions, as a result of increased oxygen availability, results in increased total NOx emissions. Between these two regions there are competing effects which result in relatively constant NOx.

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Figures

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Fig. 5

Peak bulk gas temperature versus λng

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Fig. 4

The 10–90 burn duration and peak bulk temperature versus substitution

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Fig. 3

λng and BS-NOx versus substitution

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Fig. 2

BS-NOx versus λng at 80%, 85%, and 90% substitution

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Fig. 1

BS-NOx versus λtot at 80%, 85%, and 90% substitution

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Fig. 6

Intake O2 concentration versus λng

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Fig. 7

BS-NOx versus λng, 80% substitution

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Fig. 8

Peak bulk gas temperature versus λng at three different phasings, 80% substitution

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Fig. 9

Understanding BS-NOx versus λng trends for high substitution DF combustion at fixed combustion phasing

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