0
research-article

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NOx FORMATION IN A DUAL FUEL ENGINE

[+] Author and Article Information
Luke Hagen

Hiltner Combustion Systems, Ferndale, WA 98248 USA
lmh@hcs-nw.com

Baine Breaux

Hiltner Combustion Systems, Ferndale, WA 98248 USA
bbb@hcs-nw.com

Michael Flory

Hiltner Combustion Systems, Ferndale, WA 98248 USA
msf@hcs-nw.com

Joel Hiltner

Hiltner Combustion Systems, Ferndale, WA 98248 USA
jdh@hcs-nw.com

Scott Fiveland

Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL 61602 USA, Fiveland
fiveland_scott_b@cat.com

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4040179 History: Received April 09, 2018; Revised April 13, 2018

Abstract

The North American oil and gas industry has experienced a market pull for dual fuel (DF) engines that can run on any ratio of fuels ranging from 100% diesel to a high proportion of field gas relative to diesel, while also meeting the US Tier 4 Nonroad emissions standards. A DF engine must meet complex and at times competing requirements in terms of performance, fuel tolerance, and emissions. The challenges faced in designing a DF engine to meet all of the performance and emissions requirements require a detailed understanding of the trade-offs for each pollutant. This paper will focus on the details of NOx formation for high substitution DF engines. Experimental results have demonstrated that NOx emission trends (as a function of lambda) for DF engines differ from both traditional diesel engines and lean burn natural gas engines. For high energy substitution (>70%) conditions, NOx emissions are a function of the premixed gas lambda and contain a local minimum, with NOx increasing as lambda is either leaned or richened beyond the local minimum which occurs from approximately 1.7 - 1.85. It is hypothesized that at richer conditions (premixed lamda < 1.7), NOx formed in the burning of gaseous fuel results in increased total NOx emissions. At leaner conditions (lng> 1.85) the NOx formed in the diesel post flame regions, as a result of increased oxygen availability, results in increased total NOx emissions. Between these two regions there are competing effects which result in relatively constant NOx.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In