Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Impact of Flow Unsteadiness on Steady-State Gas-Path Stagnation Temperature Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Clare Bonham

Department of Aeronatutical and
Aeronautical Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: c.bonham@lboro.ac.uk

Mark Brend, Adrian Spencer, Katsu Tanimizu, Dylan Wise

Department of Aeronatutical and
Aeronautical Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK

1Present address: Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Southwell Building, Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 0ES, UK.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 1, 2018; final manuscript received April 26, 2018; published online August 6, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Klaus Brun.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 122602 (Aug 06, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1041; doi: 10.1115/1.4040285 History: Received February 01, 2018; Revised April 26, 2018

Steady-state stagnation temperature probes are used during gas turbine engine testing as a means of characterizing turbomachinery component performance. The probes are located in the high-velocity gas-path, where temperature recovery and heat transfer effects cause a shortfall between the measured temperature and the flow stagnation temperature. To improve accuracy, the measurement shortfall is corrected post-test using data acquired at representative Mach numbers in a steady aerodynamic calibration facility. However, probes installed in engines are typically subject to unsteady flows, which are characterized by periodic variations in Mach number and temperature caused by the wakes shed from upstream blades. The present work examines the impact of this periodic unsteadiness on stagnation temperature measurements by translating probes between jets with dissimilar Mach numbers. For conventional Kiel probes in unsteady flows, a greater temperature measurement shortfall is recorded compared to equivalent steady flows, which is related to greater conductive heat loss from the temperature sensor. This result is important for the application of post-test corrections, since an incorrect value will be applied using steady calibration data. A new probe design with low susceptibility to conductive heat losses is therefore developed, which is shown to deliver the same performance in both steady and unsteady flows. Measurements from this device can successfully be corrected using steady aerodynamic calibration data, resulting in improved stagnation temperature accuracy compared to conventional probe designs. This is essential for resolving in-engine component performance to better than ±0.5% across all component pressure ratios.

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Fig. 7

Induced flow incidence angle due to probe translation

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Fig. 5

Frequency sensitivity of a ø0.5 mm N-type thermocouple bead to typical flow conditions downstream of a fan (f 0.01–10 Hz)

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Fig. 6

Impact of probe translation on sensor static calibration retention

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Fig. 4

Axial velocity profile at coaxial nozzle exit for Mi = 0.85, 0.55, 0.25 and Mo = 0.3

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Fig. 2

Normalized flow profiles downstream of the fan of a high-bypass ratio turbofan engine

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Fig. 1

Diagram of a thermocouple Kiel probe

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Fig. 8

Nondimensionalized jet velocity over one probe traverse cycle (50/50 duty cycle)

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Fig. 9

Histograms of thermocouple indicated temperature at f = 0.5 Hz and f = 10 Hz (Mo/Mi = 0.33)

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Fig. 16

Temperature recovery ratio of acrylic Kiel probe at f = 10 Hz (50/50 and 70/30 duty cycles)

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Fig. 17

Change in temperature indicated by acrylic Kiel probe between f = 0 Hz and f = 10 Hz for 50/50 and 70/30 duty cycles

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Fig. 10

Temperature recovery ratio of thermocouple Kiel probe for various oscillation frequencies (50/50 duty cycle)

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Fig. 11

Change in temperature indicated by thermocouple Kiel probe between f = 0 Hz and f = 10 Hz for 50/50 and 70/30 duty cycles

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Fig. 13

Diagram of a PRT Kiel probe

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Fig. 14

Temperature recovery ratio of PRT Kiel probe for various oscillation frequencies (50/50 duty cycle)

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Fig. 15

Change in temperature indicated by PRT Kiel probe between f = 0 Hz and f = 10 Hz FOR 50/50 and 70/30 duty cycles

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Fig. 18

Impact of combined stagnation temperature uncertainties for all three probes on the calculated isentropic efficiency of a compressor (T0in = 300 K), ηp = 0.85

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Fig. 12

Impact of thermocouple Kiel stagnation temperature uncertainties on the calculated isentropic efficiency of a compressor (T0in = 300 K), ηp = 0.85



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