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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Twin-Fluid Atomized Spray Combustion of Straight Vegetable Oil at Elevated Pressures

[+] Author and Article Information
Yonas Niguse

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Louisiana at Lafayette,
Lafayette, LA 70503
e-mail: ygn1575@louisiana.edu

Ajay K. Agrawal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Alabama,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
e-mail: AAgrawal@eng.ua.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 27, 2018; final manuscript received May 5, 2018; published online July 9, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(11), 111504 (Jul 09, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1188; doi: 10.1115/1.4040286 History: Received April 27, 2018; Revised May 05, 2018

The effect of the chamber pressure on combustion of a twin-fluid-atomized spray of straight vegetable oil (VO) in a swirl stabilized combustion system is experimentally studied. A system with high pressure capabilities was developed, and flame and emissions characteristics of VO are investigated at elevated pressures up to about 5 bars, different heat release rates (HRRs), and atomizing air to liquid ratios (ALR) by mass. An image analysis technique was developed to infer flame and soot characteristics from visual images acquired by a digital camera. An increase in the ALR resulted in improved combustion of VO, characterized by blue flames, lower CO and NOx emissions, and minimal soot formation. For a given fuel flow rate, an increase in the chamber pressure resulted in smaller volume flames with lower CO levels but higher NOx emissions. Compared to diesel, as pressure increased, straight VO flames produced lower NOx and more voluminous flames characterized by distributed combustion with less soot formation. Overall, straight VO could be atomized and combusted at elevated pressures using the twin-fluid atomizer of the present study, and the resulting VO flames exhibited less sensitivity to chamber pressure variations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of FB atomization

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Fig. 2

Schematic and photograph of the high-pressure combustion experimental setup

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Fig. 3

Comparisons of diesel versus straight VO visual flames at chamber pressures p = 104.1 kPa and p = 206.1 kPa. (HRR = 12 kW, ALR = 2.67, and ϕ = 0.76). All dimensions in cm.

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Fig. 4

Bar charts of CO and NOx emissions for straight VO and diesel flames at chamber pressures p = 104.1 kPa and 206.8 kPa (HRR = 12 kW, ALR = 2.67, and ϕ = 0.76)

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Fig. 5

Visual images of VO flames at different ALRs at p = 158 kPa (ϕ = 0.76 and HRR =12 kW)

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Fig. 6

Black and white transformation example of a full flame and sooty region of flame

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Fig. 7

Transformation of two-dimensional shapes into layers of disc-shaped volume using local axisymmetric consideration

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Fig. 8

(a) Emissions of CO and NOx, (b) normalized flame dimensions, and (c) percentage of sooty flame by volume for VO combustion at different ALRs (ϕ = 0.76 and HRR = 12 kW)

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Fig. 9

Visual images of VO flames at different chamber pressures for (a) HRR = 12 kW (top row) and (b) HRR = 24 kW (bottom row), ALR = 2.67 and ϕ = 0.76

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Fig. 10

(a) Lift-off height, (b) normalized flame volume, and (c) normalized flame width at different chamber pressures for different HRRs (ALR = 2.67 and ϕ = 0.76)

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Fig. 11

Plots of (a) CO and (b) NOx concentrations, and (c) yellow (sooty) flame volume percentage at different chamber pressures for different HRRs (ALR = 2.67 and ϕ = 0.76)

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