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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Seizure Improved Lead-Free Electroplated Bearing Overlay System for Heavy-Duty Truck and Off-Highway Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Kevin Jupe

MAHLE Engine Systems,
Rugby CV23 0WE, UK
e-mail: kevin.jupe@gb.mahle.com

Roger Gorges

MAHLE Engine Systems,
Rugby CV23 0WE, UK
e-mail: roger.gorges@gb.mahle.com

Anil Rathod

MAHLE Engine Systems,
Rugby CV23 0WE, UK
e-mail: anil.rathod@gb.mahle.com

John Carey

MAHLE Engine Systems,
Rugby CV23 0WE, UK
e-mail: john.carey@gb.mahle.com

John Stearns

MAHLE Engine Components,
Farmington Hills, MI 48335
e-mail: john.stearns@us.mahle.com

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received May 10, 2018; final manuscript received May 10, 2018; published online July 9, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(11), 112806 (Jul 09, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1203; doi: 10.1115/1.4040292 History: Received May 10, 2018; Revised May 10, 2018

The move to lead-free bearing materials is well known, and upcoming legislation, such as the restriction of hazardous substances, is increasing the drive to extend this trend toward heavy-duty diesel truck and off-highway applications. During the development of lead-free systems, new electroplated overlays and bronze-based substrates have been developed by various suppliers, but little attention has been given to the interlayer or diffusion barrier between the overlay and substrate materials. This interlayer is particularly necessary for tin-based solutions as it prevents the rapid diffusion of overlay species into the bronze substrate. The present development focuses on improving this often overlooked element in the system and provides a further robustness that could even be adapted to lead-based systems where increased performance is required. The incorporation of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) as a solid lubricant in the nickel interlayer changes dramatically the interlayer properties and provides more typical bearing-like behavior for seizure resistance and scuff performance compared to nickel alone. The paper details the findings of respective rig tests as well as an actual engine test supporting the change in material characteristics and the associated improvement in seizure resistance.

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References

Pratt, G. C. , 1973, “ Materials for Plain Bearings,” Int. Metall. Rev., 18(2), pp. 62–88. [CrossRef]
Eastham, D. R. , 1993, “ Electroplated Overlays for Crankshaft Bearings,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 115(4), pp. 706–710. [CrossRef]
Lipp, A. , Schwetz, K.-A. , and Hunold, K. , 1989, “ Hexagonal Boron Nitride: Fabrication, Properties and Applications,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 5(1), pp. 3–9. [CrossRef]
Erdemir, A. , 2005, “ Review of Engineered Tribological Interfaces for Improved Boundary Lubrication,” Tribol. Int., 38(3), pp. 249–256. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Microphotograph of Ni–hBN interlayer in a lead-free trimetal bearing (magnified view of hBN dispersion)

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Fig. 2

Schematic of Sapphire fatigue test rig

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Fig. 3

Example of recorded data from instrumented scuff-seizure rig test

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Fig. 4

Seizure test results for bearings tested without overlay (nickel as running layer)

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Fig. 5

Seizure test results for lead-free trimetal bearing system with and without hBN in nickel interlayer

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Fig. 6

Recorded data from scuff-seizure test on lead-free bearing with plain nickel interlayer

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Fig. 7

Recorded data from scuff-seizure test on lead-free bearing featuring Ni–hBN interlayer

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Fig. 8

Recorded scuff-seizure test data for full sample sets of plain nickel and Ni–hBN bearings illustrating increased running times and temperature endurance from the Ni–hBN samples

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Fig. 9

Schematic of Viper wear test rig

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Fig. 10

Comparison of Viper wear test results for lead-free trimetal bearings containing standard plain nickel and Ni–hBN interlayers

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Fig. 11

Schematic of embeddability test rig

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Fig. 12

Comparison of embeddability capability of lead-free bearings with Ni–hBN interlayer versus lead-free with plain nickel interlayer and leaded bearing materials

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Fig. 13

Region of high wear witnessed on upper rod bearing following 250 h of durability testing. The Ni–hBN interlayer and bronze substrate has been exposed but there is no evidence of increased temperature or scuffing/seizure.

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