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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of the Effect of Water Injection Characteristics on TSCI: A New, Load-Flexible, Advanced Combustion Concept

[+] Author and Article Information
Mozhgan Rahimi Boldaji

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11790
e-mail: mozhgan.rahimiboldaji@stonybrook.edu

Aimilios Sofianopoulos

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11790
e-mail: aimilios.sofianopoulos@stonybrook.edu

Sotirios Mamalis

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11790
e-mail: sotirios.mamalis@stonybrook.edu

Benjamin Lawler

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11790
e-mail: benjamin.lawler@stonybrook.edu

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received May 11, 2018; final manuscript received May 16, 2018; published online July 9, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(11), 112807 (Jul 09, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1205; doi: 10.1115/1.4040309 History: Received May 11, 2018; Revised May 16, 2018

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion has the potential for high efficiency with very low levels of NOx and soot emissions. However, HCCI has thus far only been achievable in a laboratory setting due the lack of control over the start and rate of combustion and its narrow operating range. In the present work, direct water injection (WI) was investigated to solve the aforementioned limitations of HCCI. This new advanced combustion mode is called thermally stratified compression ignition (TSCI). A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) model was developed using CONVERGE CFD coupled with detailed chemical kinetics to gain a better understanding of the underlying phenomena of the water injection event in a homogeneous, low temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The CFD model was first validated against previously collected experimental data. The model was then used to simulate TSCI combustion and the results indicate that injecting water into the combustion chamber decreases the overall unburned gas temperature and increases the level of thermal stratification prior to ignition. The increased thermal stratification results in a decreased rate of combustion, thereby providing control over its rate. The results show that the peak pressure and gross heat release rate (HRR) decrease by 37.8% and 83.2%, respectively, when 6.7 mg of water were injected per cycle at a pressure of 160 bar. Finally, different spray patterns were simulated to observe their effect on the level of thermal stratification prior to ignition. The results show that the symmetric patterns with more nozzle holes were generally more effective at increasing thermal stratification.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the CFD engine geometry

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Fig. 2

Comparison between the CFD model and experimental results for pure HCCI without water injection

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Fig. 4

Effect of water injection pressure on (a) the cylinder pressure and (b) heat release rate

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Fig. 3

Comparison between the CFD model and experimental results for TSCI with water injection

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Fig. 5

The in-cylinder mass–temperature distribution prior to ignition represented as mass PDFs versus temperature for different injection pressures

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Fig. 6

Effect of water injection pressure on cut-plane temperature distribution

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Fig. 7

Thermal widths as a function of crank angle for different injection pressures

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Fig. 8

The effect of injection pressure on the fraction of gaseous water versus CAD

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Fig. 9

The effect of water injection pressure on the (a) cylinder pressure and heat release rates and (b) mass fraction burned for pure HCCI and TSCI with matched CA50 s

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Fig. 10

Schematic of spray patterns viewed from a plane perpendicular to injector axis

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Fig. 11

Effect of the number of nozzle holes on the heat release rates

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Fig. 20

Comparison of filter and unfiltered mass–temperature distribution

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Fig. 12

Fraction of injected water trapped in the wall film for the nozzle hole number comparison

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Fig. 13

Thermal widths for the nozzle hole number comparison

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Fig. 14

Effect of water injection spray pattern on heat release rate in the 4-hole and 6-hole injectors

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Fig. 15

Effect of water injection spray pattern on the mass–temperature distribution prior to ignition for the 4-hole and 6-hole injectors

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Fig. 16

Effect of water injection spray pattern on combustion for the three nozzle hole injectors

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Fig. 17

Effect of water injection spray pattern on mass–temperature distribution for the 3-hole injector comparison

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Fig. 18

Effect of water injection spray pattern on heat release for the 2-hole injector comparison

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Fig. 19

Effect of water injection spray pattern on mass–temperature distribution for the 2-hole injector comparison

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