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Research Papers

Rotordynamic Characterization of a Staggered Labyrinth Seal: Experimental Test Data and Comparison With Predictions

[+] Author and Article Information
Filippo Cangioli

Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa 1,
Milan 20156, Italy
e-mail: filippo.cangioli@polimi.it

Giuseppe Vannini

Baker Hughes,
GE Company,
Via Felice Matteucci 2,
Florence 50127, Italy
e-mail: giuseppe.vannini@bhge.com

Paolo Pennacchi

Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa 1,
Milan 20156, Italy
e-mail: paolo.pennacchi@polimi.it

Lorenzo Ciuchicchi

Baker Hughes,
GE Company,
480 Allée Gustave Eiffel,
Le Creusot 71200, France
e-mail: lorenzo.ciuchicchi@bhge.com

Leonardo Nettis

Baker Hughes,
GE Company,
Via Felice Matteucci 2,
Florence 50127, Italy
e-mail: Leonardo.nettis@bhge.com

Steven Chatterton

Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa 1,
Milan 20156, Italy
e-mail: steven.chatterton@polimi.it

Manuscript received June 22, 2018; final manuscript received June 25, 2018; published online September 14, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(1), 011009 (Sep 14, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1293; doi: 10.1115/1.4040688 History: Received June 22, 2018; Revised June 25, 2018

As well known, the stability assessment of turbomachines is strongly related to internal sealing components. For instance, labyrinth seals are widely used in compressors, steam, and gas turbines and pumps to control the clearance leakage between rotating and stationary parts, owing to their simplicity, reliability, and tolerance to large thermal and pressure variations. Labyrinth seals working principle consists of reducing the leakage by imposing tortuous passages to the fluid that are effective on dissipating the kinetic energy of the fluid from high-pressure regions to low-pressure regions. Conversely, labyrinth seals could lead to dynamics issues. Therefore, an accurate estimation of their dynamic behavior is very important. In this paper, the experimental results of a long-staggered labyrinth seal will be presented. The results in terms of rotordynamic coefficients and leakage will be discussed as well as the critical assessment of the experimental measurements. Eventually, the experimental data are compared to the numerical results obtained with the new bulk-flow model (BFM) introduced in this paper.

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References

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Dang, P. , Chatterton, S. , Pennacchi, P. , Vania, A. , and Cangioli, F. , 2015, “An Experimental Study of Nonlinear Oil-Film Forces in a Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46601.
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Cangioli, F. , Pennacchi, P. , Vannini, G. , and Ciuchicchi, L. , 2018, “Effect of Energy Equation in One Control-Volume Bulk‐Flow Model for the Prediction of Labyrinth Seal Dynamic Coefficients,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process., 98, pp. 594–612. [CrossRef]
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Vannini, G. , Cioncolini, S. , Calicchio, V. , and Tedone, F. , 2011, “Development of a High Pressure Rotordynamic Test Rig for Centrifugal Compressors Internal Seals Characterization,” 40th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 12–15, pp. 46–59.
Vannini, G. , Cioncolini, S. , Del Vescovo, G. , and Rovini, M. , 2014, “Labyrinth Seal and Pocket Damper Seal High Pressure Rotordynamic Test Data,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(2), p. 022501. [CrossRef]
Cangioli, F. , Pennacchi, P. , Vannini, G. , Ciuchicchi, L. , Vania, A. , Chatterton, S. , and Dang, P. V. , 2017, “On the Thermodynamic Process in the Bulk-Flow Model for the Estimation of the Dynamic Coefficients of Labyrinth Seals,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 140(3), p. 032502. [CrossRef]
Cangioli, F. , Chatterton, S. , Pennacchi, P. , Nettis, L. , and Ciuchicchi, L. , 2018, “Thermo-Elasto Bulk-Flow Model for Labyrinth Seals in Steam Turbines,” Tribol. Int., 119, pp. 359–371. [CrossRef]
Cangioli, F. , Pennacchi, P. , Riboni, G. , Vannini, G. , Ciuchicchi, L. , Vania, A. , and Chatterton, S. , 2017, “Sensitivity Analysis of the One-Control Volume Bulk-Flow Model for a 14 Teeth-on-Stator Straight-Through Labyrinth Seal,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-630.

Figures

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Fig. 1

High-pressure seal test-rig [11]

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Fig. 2

Scheme of the staggered labyrinth seal used in the experimental tests

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Fig. 3

Final layout of the staggered labyrinth seal installed in the HPSTR

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Fig. 4

CVs and bulk-flow quantities

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Fig. 5

Scheme and nomenclature used to describe staggered labyrinth seals

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Fig. 6

Control volumes used in the BFM proposed by the authors

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Fig. 12

Comparison of predictions and measurements of direct stiffness and cross-coupled damping coefficients as a function of the whirling speed for the experiment A

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Fig. 13

Comparison of predictions and measurements of direct stiffness and cross-coupled damping coefficients as a function of the whirling speed for the experiment B

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Fig. 14

Comparison of predictions and measurements of the effective damping coefficient as a function of the whirling speed for the experiments A and B

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Fig. 8

Comparison of predictions and measurements of direct damping and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients as a function of the whirling speed for the experiment A

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Fig. 9

Comparison of predictions and measurements of direct damping and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients as a function of the whirling speed for the experiment B

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the mass-flow measured and predicted

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Fig. 11

Trend of the predicted direct damping and cross-coupled stiffness as a function of the seal's cavity for the experiment B

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Fig. 7

Normalized pressure in the seal inlet

Tables

Errata

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