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Research Papers

The Effect of Stratification Ratio on the Macrostructure of Stratified Swirl Flames: Experimental and Numerical Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiao Han

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
Aero-Thermodynamics,
Co-innovation Center for
Advanced Aero-Engine,
School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: hanxiaoflame@buaa.edu.cn

Davide Laera

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
South Kensington Campus,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: d.laera@imperial.ac.uk

Aimee S. Morgans

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
South Kensington Campus,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: a.morgans@imperial.ac.uk

Yuzhen Lin

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
Aero-Thermodynamics,
Co-innovation Center for
Advanced Aero-Engine,
School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100083, China
e-mail: linyuzhen@buaa.edu.cn

Chih-Jen Sung

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT 06269
e-mail: cjsung@engr.uconn.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 21, 2018; final manuscript received June 22, 2018; published online September 21, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 121004 (Sep 21, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1272; doi: 10.1115/1.4040735 History: Received June 21, 2018; Revised June 22, 2018

The present paper reports experimental and numerical analyses of the macrostructures featured by a stratified swirling flame for varying stratification ratio (SR). The studies are performed with the Beihang Axial Swirler Independently Stratified (BASIS) burner, a novel double-swirled full-scale burner developed at Beihang University. Experimentally, it is found that depending on the ratio between the equivalence ratios of the methane–air mixtures from the two swirlers, the flame stabilizes with three different shapes: attached V-flame, attached stratified flame, and lifted flame. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to the three macrostructures, large eddy simulations (LES) are performed via the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM using the incompressible solver ReactingFoam. Changing SR, simulation results show good agreement with experimentally observed time-averaged flame shapes, demonstrating that the incompressible LES are able to fully characterize the different flame behaviors observed in stratified burners. When the LES account for heat loss from walls, they better capture the experimentally observed flame quenching in the outer shear layer (OSL). Finally, insights into the flame dynamics are provided by analyzing probes located near the two separate streams.

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Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Flames , Shapes , Heat losses
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of time-averaged flow field of typical stratified swirling flames. 1—central shear layer, 2—lip shear layer, 3—inner shear layer, 4—OSL, 5—primary recirculation zone, 6—corner recirculation zone, and 7—lip recirculation zone. Point A–D: stagnation points.

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Fig. 2

Schematic of (a) the BASIS burner and (b) the test rig (not in scale). Dimensions are in millimeters.

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Fig. 3

Experimental results of flame macrostructure for varying SR (flame images are postprocessed by Abel deconvolution [32])

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Fig. 4

Experimental results of flame macrostructure for varying total equivalence ratio (flame images are postprocessed by Abel deconvolution [32])

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Fig. 5

(a) Structured mesh of computational domain, (b) distribution of y+ (flame tube diameter 140 mm), and (c) histogram of y+

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Fig. 6

Comparison between the coarse and fine mesh: (a) time-averaged temperature distribution, white dashed lines mark the different axial location. Profiles of (b) averaged temperature and (c) root-mean-square temperature. (○) coarse mesh, (–) fine mesh.

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Fig. 7

Comparison of velocity profiles from different axial positions between LES results (lines) and hot wire (stars)

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Fig. 8

Time-averaged distributions of axial velocity from LES with black lines marking the streamlines. The white line marks the zero contour of axial velocity. Letter A–D mark the coherent vortexes.

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Fig. 9

Time-averaged distributions of temperature (K) (up) and equivalence ratio (bottom) from LES

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Fig. 10

Time-averaged distributions of volumetric heat release rate (W m−3) (up) and CO fraction (bottom) from LES

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Fig. 11

(a) Snapshot from experimental recording and (b) schematic of boundary condition of heat loss

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Fig. 12

Effect of heat loss on time-averaged flame shape of LES results, using volumetric heat release rate (W m−3). The white solid lines mark the mean temperature contour.

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Fig. 13

Flame dynamics with spectra (left) and 2D-FFT modes (right). Premultiplied spectrum of axial velocity recorded from (a) the probe 1 and (c) probe 2. Normalized real part of the 2D-FFT results of (b) 433 Hz mode and (d) 1567 Hz mode based on temperature fields.

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