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Research Papers

Aeromechanical Response of a Distortion-Tolerant Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew J. Provenza

NASA Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, OH 44135
e-mail: provenza@nasa.gov

Kirsten P. Duffy

Department of Mechanical, Industrial,
and Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Toledo,
Toledo, OH 43606

Milind A. Bakhle

NASA Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, OH 44135

Manuscript received June 22, 2018; final manuscript received June 28, 2018; published online September 14, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki. This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(1), 011011 (Sep 14, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1308; doi: 10.1115/1.4040739 History: Received June 22, 2018; Revised June 28, 2018

Boundary layer ingestion (BLI) is a propulsion technology being investigated at NASA by the Advanced Aircraft Transportation Technology (AATT) Program to facilitate a substantial reduction in aircraft fuel burn. In an attempt to experimentally demonstrate an increase in the propulsive efficiency of a BLI engine, a first-of-its-kind subscale high-bypass ratio 22″ titanium fan, designed to structurally withstand significant unsteady pressure loading caused by a heavily distorted axial air inflow, was built and then tested in the transonic section of the GRC 8′ × 6′ supersonic wind tunnel. The vibratory responses of a subset of fan blades were measured using strain gages placed in four different blade pressure side surface locations. Response highlights include a significant response of the blade's first resonance to engine order excitation below idle as the fan was spooled up and down. The fan fluttered at the design speed under off operating line, low flow conditions. This paper presents the blade vibration response characteristics over the operating range of the fan and compares them to predicted behaviors. It also provides an assessment of this distortion-tolerant fan's (DTF) ability to withstand the harsh dynamic BLI environment over an entire design life of billions of load cycles at design speed.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Blades , Stress , Design
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References

Smith, L. H. , 1993, “Wake Ingestion Propulsion Benefit,” AIAA J. Propul. Power, 9(1), pp. 74–82. [CrossRef]
Daggett, D. , Kawai, R. , and Friedman, D. , 2003, “Blended Wing Body Systems Studies: Boundary Layer Ingestion Inlets With Active Flow Control,” NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, Report No. NASA/CR-2003-212670. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040031343
Kawai, R. , Friedman, D. , and Serrano, L. , 2006, “Blended Wing Body (BWB) Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) Inlet Configuration and Systems Studies,” NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, Report No. NASA/CR-2006-214534. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070006754
Plas, A. P. , 2007, “Performance of a Boundary Layer Ingesting (BLI) Propulsion System,” AIAA Paper No. 2007-450.
Nickol, C. L. , 2008, “Silent Aircraft Initiative Concept Risk Assessment,” NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, Report No. NASA/TM-2008-215112. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012497
Nickol, C. L. , and McCullers, L. A. , 2009, “Hybrid Wing Body Configuration System Studies,” AIAA Paper No. 2009-931.
Arend, D. J. , Wolter, J. D. , Hirt, S. M. , Provenza, A. J. , Gazzaniga, J. A. , Cousins, W. T. , Hardin, L. W. , and Sharma, O. P. , 2017, “Experimental Evaluation of an Embedded Boundary Layer Ingesting Propulsor for Highly Efficient Subsonic Cruise Aircraft,” AIAA Paper No. 2017-5041.
Cousins, W. T. , Voytovych, D. , Tillman, G. , and Gray, E. , 2017, “Design of a Distortion-Tolerant Fan for a Boundary-Layer Ingesting Embedded Engine Application,” AIAA Paper No. 2017-5042.
Hardin, L. W. , Cousins, W. T. , Wolter, J. D. , Arend, D. J. , and Hirt, S. M. , 2018, “Data Analysis Techniques for Fan Performance in Highly-Distorted Flows From Boundary Layer Ingesting Inlets,” AIAA Paper No. 2018-1888.
Duffy, K. P. , Provenza, A. J. , Bakhle, M. A. , Min, J. B. , and Abdul-Aziz, A. , 2018, “Laser Displacement Measurements of Fan Blades in Resonance and Flutter During the Boundary Layer Ingesting Inlet and Distortion-Tolerant Fan Test,” AIAA Paper No. 2018-1892.
Bakhle, M. A. , Reddy, T. S. , Coroneos, R. M. , Min, J. B. , Provenza, A. J. , Duffy, K. P. , Stefko, G. L. , and Heinlein, G. , 2018, “Aeromechanics Analysis of a Distortion-Tolerant Fan With Boundary Layer Ingestion,” AIAA Paper No. 2018-1891.
Min, J. B. , Reddy, T. S. , Bakhle, M. A. , Coroneos, R. M. , Stefko, G. L. , Provenza, A. J. , and Duffy, K. P. , 2018, “Cyclic Symmetry Finite Element Forced Response Analysis of a Distortion Tolerant Fan With Boundary Layer Ingestion,” AIAA Paper No. 2018-1890.
Cardinale, V. M. , Bankhead, H. R. , and McKay, R. A. , 1980, “Experimental Verification of Turboblading Aeromechanics,” Turbine Engine Testing AGARD Conference, Session IV Complete Powerplant Testing, Part I, p. 23.
Bakhle, M. A. , Reddy, T. S. , Herrick, G. P. , Shabbir, A. , and Florea, R. V. , 2012, “Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-3995.
Bakhle, M. A. , Reddy, T. S. , and Coroneos, R. M. , 2014, “Forced Response Analysis of a Fan With Boundary Layer Inlet Distortion,” AIAA Paper No. 2014-3734.

Figures

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Fig. 1

A NASA hybrid wing body, or blended wing body vehicle with embedded propulsors

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Fig. 2

Layout of the NASA GRC 8 × 6 wind tunnel test BLI2DTF fan hardware [7]

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Fig. 3

Frontal view of the BLI wind tunnel model showing the ingestion of the boundary layer

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Fig. 4

Experimentally measured steady-state AIP total pressure distribution (ADP conditions) [7]

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Fig. 5

Strain gage locations on titanium DTF blade

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Fig. 6

Boundary layer ingestion fan wheel chart showing blade SNs and slot locations. Gaged blade SNs: 1, 2, 4, 9, 17, 18, 21, and 22.

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Fig. 7

First 4 blade mode shapes at relevant engine order excitations

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Fig. 8

BLI2DTF fan blade Campbell diagram with FEA predictions and experimental results

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Fig. 9

BLI2DTF fan blade Campbell diagram with crossings 1, 2, 3 and frequency margins A, B, C of interest

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Fig. 10

Effects of inlet shape tailoring and final blade design changes on M2/3EO vibration component amplitude at SG1 root gage location at ADP

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Fig. 11

Blade vibration Campbell diagram. Typical response during test rig startup at blade root.

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Fig. 12

Wind tunnel test rig startup air and fan speed profile

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Fig. 13

Goodman diagram with a typical M1/2EO transient response point with high damping and region of more typical response from Ref. [13]

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Fig. 14

Fast Fourier transform breakdown of blade 1 SG1 root vibration at ADP

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Fig. 15

Fast Fourier transform breakdown of Blade 1 SG2 TE vibration at ADP

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Fig. 16

Fast Fourier transform breakdown of blade 1 SG3 tip vibration at ADP

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Fig. 17

Fast Fourier transform breakdown of blade SN22 SG4 Mid vibration at ADP

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Fig. 18

Comparison of root gage (SG1) engine order response amplitudes

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Fig. 19

Comparison of TE gage (SG2) engine order response amplitudes

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Fig. 20

Comparison of tip gage (SG3) engine order response amplitudes

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Fig. 21

Boundary layer ingestion propulsor preliminary fan map with fan stage pressure ratio plotted versus mass flow for qualitative reference

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Fig. 22

Amplitude of blade SN17 root gage stress plotted with variable area nozzle position during flutter event

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Fig. 23

A Comparison of blade dynamic stress at the root gage. Flutter event amplitudes and several M1/2EO crossing amplitudes shown.

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Fig. 24

Amplitude of blade SN17 Root gage stress plotted with fan speed during flutter event

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Fig. 25

Goodman diagram showing the mode 1 flutter gage stress amplitudes as they compare to other key mode 1 responses

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Fig. 26

Effect of nozzle position on gage stress for blade SN1 root gage (SG1) at ADP

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Fig. 27

Effect of nozzle position on gage stress for blade SN1 TE gage (SG2) at ADP

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Fig. 28

Effect of nozzle position on gage stress for blade SN1 tip gage (SG3) at ADP

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Fig. 29

Effect of nozzle position on gage stress for blade SN22 midblade gage (SG4) at ADP

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