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Research Papers

Assessment of CO2 and NOx Emissions in Intercooled Pulsed Detonation Turbofan Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Carlos Xisto

Department of Mechanics and
Maritime Sciences,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg SE-41296, Sweden
e-mail: carlos.xisto@chalmers.se

Olivier Petit, Tomas Grönstedt

Department of Mechanics and
Maritime Sciences,
Chalmers University of Technology,
Gothenburg SE-41296, Sweden

Anders Lundbladh

GKN Aerospace,
Trollhättan SE-46181, Sweden

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 25, 2018; final manuscript received June 26, 2018; published online September 17, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(1), 011016 (Sep 17, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1341; doi: 10.1115/1.4040741 History: Received June 25, 2018; Revised June 26, 2018

In the present paper, the synergistic combination of intercooling with pulsed detonation combustion is analyzed concerning its contribution to NOx and CO2 emissions. CO2 is directly proportional to fuel burn and can, therefore, be reduced by improving specific fuel consumption (SFC) and reducing engine weight and nacelle drag. A model predicting NOx generation per unit of fuel for pulsed detonation combustors (PDCs), operating with jet-A fuel, is developed and integrated within Chalmers University's gas turbine simulation tool GESTPAN. The model is constructed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data obtained for different combustor inlet pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio levels. The NOx model supports the quantification of the trade-off between CO2 and NOx emissions in a 2050 geared turbofan architecture incorporating intercooling and pulsed detonation combustion and operating at pressures and temperatures of interest in gas turbine technology for aero-engine civil applications.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Detonation propagation and blowdown characteristic times occurring during the active detonation period

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Fig. 2

One-dimensional model used to EINOx evaluation

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Fig. 3

Pressure distribution in the tube using different grid resolutions. Note: the curves are intentionally translated along the x-axis (showed for grid-D) allowing for a better comparison.

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Fig. 4

Relative difference computed for the EINOx

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Fig. 5

Validation against literature [4] data, P33 = 8.6 bar, T33 = 700 K, and L = 0.5 m

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Fig. 6

Top: the geared intercooled gas turbine engine with PDC. Bottom: reference geared turbofan engine.

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Fig. 7

Performance model schematics for the reference and intercooled engines

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Fig. 8

Schematic of the intercooler arrangement around the annulus

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Fig. 9

In-house CFD results obtained for the mass-weighted averaged normalized static pressure history, computed at turbine inlet. Instantaneous contour plots of static pressure illustrating the complex shock-wave structure occurring in the rotor and stator planes.

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Fig. 10

Engine optimization loop

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Fig. 11

Relative SFC reduction with percentage of variable area nozzle at TOC and cruise. —Optimal combination of N2 opening.

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Fig. 12

EINOx results obtained for ϕ = 1. —PDC-1; –Intercooled PDC.

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Fig. 13

EINOx results obtained for (a) ϕ = 0.7 and (b) ϕ = 0.6. –PDC-1; –Intercooled PDC.

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