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Research Papers

Experimental Study on Low Load Operation Range Extension by Autothermal On-Board Syngas Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
Max H. Baumgärtner

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching D-85747, Germany
e-mail: baumgaertner@td.mw.tum.de

Thomas Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching D-85747, Germany

Manuscript received June 25, 2018; final manuscript received June 29, 2018; published online September 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(1), 011014 (Sep 14, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1337; doi: 10.1115/1.4040747 History: Received June 25, 2018; Revised June 29, 2018

Volatile renewable energy sources induce power supply fluctuations. These need to be compensated by flexible conventional power plants. Gas turbines in combined cycle power plants adjust the power output quickly but their turn-down ratio is limited by the slow reaction kinetics, which leads to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. To extend the turn-down ratio, part of the fuel can be converted to syngas, which exhibits a higher reactivity. By an increasing fraction of syngas in the fuel, the reactivity of the mixture is increased and total fuel mass flow and the power output can be reduced. An autothermal on-board syngas generator in combination with two different burner concepts for natural gas (NG)/syngas mixtures was presented in a previous study (Baumgärtner, M. H., and Sattelmayer, T., 2017, “Low Load Operation Range Extension by Autothermal On-Board Syngas Generation,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 140(4), p. 041505). The study at hand shows a mass-flow variation of the reforming process with mass flows, which allow for pure syngas combustion and further improvements of the two burner concepts which result in a more application-oriented operation. The first of the two burner concepts comprises a generic swirl stage with a central lance for syngas injection. Syngas is injected with swirl to avoid a negative impact on the total swirl intensity and nonswirled. The second concept includes a central swirl stage with an outer ring of jets. For this burner, syngas is injected in both stages to avoid NOx emissions from the swirl stage. Increased NOx emissions produced by NG combustion of the swirl pilot were reported in last year's paper. For both burners, combustion performance is analyzed by OH*-chemiluminescence and gaseous emissions. The lowest possible adiabatic flame temperature without a significant increase of CO emissions was 170–210 K lower for the syngas compared to low load pure NG combustion. This corresponds to a decrease of 15–20% in terms of thermal power.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Sketch of the fuel processor test rig [3]

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Fig. 1

Process scheme of on-board fuel processor for extension of part load regime [9]

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Fig. 3

Sketch of the generic swirl burner test rig with lance injector [3]

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Fig. 4

Sketch of the central swirl-stabilized jet burner test rig

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Fig. 13

Averaged OH*-chemiluminescence images showing the differences between premixed and syngas operation for the swirl-stabilized jet burner

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Fig. 15

Normalized NOx emissions of the swirl-stabilized jet burner for different syngas amounts

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Fig. 8

Averaged OH*-chemiluminescence images showing the differences between premixed and nonswirled syngas injection operation

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Fig. 9

Procedure for the temperature adjustment for the syngas cases

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Fig. 10

Normalized CO emissions of nonswirled lance injection for different syngas amounts

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Fig. 11

Normalized NOx emissions of nonswirled lance injection for different syngas amounts

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Fig. 12

Normalized CO emissions of swirled and nonswirled lance injection for different syngas amounts

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Fig. 5

Measured CH4 mole fraction along the fuel processor for Air/C = 2.5, H2O/C = 2.5, and different mass flows

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Fig. 6

Measured H2 mole fraction along the fuel processor for Air/C = 2.5, H2O/C = 2.5, and different mass flows

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Fig. 14

Normalized CO emissions of the swirl-stabilized jet burner for different syngas amounts

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Fig. 7

Averaged OH*-chemiluminescence images showing the differences between premixed and swirled syngas injection operation

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