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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Novel Natural Gas Low NOx Burners for Heavy Duty Gas Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Matteo Cerutti

Baker Hughes, a GE company (BHGE),
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: matteo.cerutti@bhge.com

Giovanni Riccio

Baker Hughes, a GE company (BHGE),
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: giovanni.riccio@bhge.com

Antonio Andreini

Department of Industrial Engineering (DIEF),
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail; antonio.andreini@htc.de.unifi.it

Riccardo Becchi

Department of Industrial Engineering (DIEF),
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: riccardo.becchi@htc.de.unifi.it

Bruno Facchini

Department of Industrial Engineering (DIEF),
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: bruno.facchini@htc.de.unifi.it

Alessio Picchi

Department of Industrial Engineering (DIEF),
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: alessio.picchi@htc.de.unifi.it

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 25, 2018; final manuscript received June 29, 2018; published online September 21, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021006 (Sep 21, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1344; doi: 10.1115/1.4040814 History: Received June 25, 2018; Revised June 29, 2018

A novel dry low-NOx gas turbine technology requires well-balanced assessments since the early development phases. The weak knowledge of often conflicting aspects, such as operability and manufacturability, make any roadmap difficult to be drawn. Introduction of innovative manufacturing technologies such as the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process allows rapid manufacturing of components and test them in dedicated facilities to support real-time development of new products. The use of such a manufacturing process allows the adoption of designed experiment-based development strategies, which are still uncommon at industrial level, due to the reduced time from drawings to test.The paper describes a reactive test campaign performed by BHGE in cooperation with University of Florence, aimed at the exploration of capabilities of different innovative burners in terms of pollutant emissions containment and blow-out margin. In particular, the test campaign has been conceived to provide a robust estimate of the effects of key geometrical parameters on principal burner performances. The flame stabilization mechanism of the investigated burners is based on the swirling flow generated by different setup of two internal channels: corotating and counter-rotating radial and axial swirlers. The effect of both the shape and the size of the internal air passages, as well as of the swirler characteristics, has been matter of investigation. Burners were tested in a single-cup test rig operated at moderate pressure conditions (up to 6 bar), with two levels of preheated air temperature (300 °C and 400 °C). Each burner was equipped with two natural gas feeding lines representing the diffusion (pilot) and premixed (main) fuel supplies: both lines were regulated during tests to assess the effect of fuel split on emissions and to identify a stable low-NOx operating window, within which a lean blow-out test was performed. Dynamic pressure probes were used to evaluate the onset of combustion instabilities. The burner development was supported by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations with the purpose to have a detailed understating of the flow-field and flame structure and to perform a preliminary screening to select the most promising solutions for the testing phase. The post process of the experimental results has allowed to correlate the main design parameters to burner performance variables discovering possible twofold optimizations in terms of emissions and operability.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Burner architecture and basic sizes

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Fig. 2

Basic single (upper) and double (lower) swirler based geometries adopted for screening

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Fig. 3

Computational domain and velocity/mixture fraction fields obtained for the double and single swirler cases

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Fig. 4

Example of flame structure obtained for the two studied configurations

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Fig. 5

Effect estimates of single-swirler basic geometry on CO emissions

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Fig. 6

Effect estimates of double-swirler basic geometry on CO emissions

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Fig. 7

Temperature map obtained on the detailed 3D model of a double swirler case

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Fig. 8

Details of geometrical variants

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Fig. 9

Sketch of the combustion test cell

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Fig. 10

Combustion rig and instrumentation

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Fig. 11

Picture of the reactive test rig

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Fig. 12

NOx emissions as a function of RF% at constant Ti and Ta for all the tested configurations

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Fig. 13

NOx emissions as a function of Ta at constant Ti and RF% for all the tested configurations

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Fig. 14

CO emissions as a function of Ta at constant Ti and RF% for all the tested configurations

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Fig. 15

CO emissions as a function of corrected NOx at constant Ti and RF% for all the tested configurations

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Fig. 16

CO emissions as a function of Ta at constant Ti and RF% for all the tested configurations

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Fig. 17

Extinction primary zone equivalence ratio as a function of Ti for all the tested configurations

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Fig. 18

Low emissions stability maps as a function of Ta and RF% at constant Ti for all the tested configurations

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Fig. 19

Effect estimates in case of unlinked objective functions

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Fig. 20

Effect estimates in case of emission reduction target linked to blow-out margin target

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