0
Research Papers

Erosion in Gas-Turbine Grade Ceramic Matrix Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
N. Kedir

Naval Air Systems Command,
Patuxent River, MD 20670

C. Gong, L. Sanchez, M. J. Presby, S. Kane, D. C. Faucett

Naval Air Systems Command,
Patuxent River, MD 20670

S. R. Choi

Naval Air Systems Command,
Patuxent River, MD 20670
e-mail: sung.choi1@navy.mil

1Present address: School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

2Present address: Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325.

3Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received July 3, 2018; published online September 17, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(1), 011019 (Sep 17, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1363; doi: 10.1115/1.4040848 History: Received June 26, 2018; Revised July 03, 2018

Erosion behavior of a large number of gas-turbine grade ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) was assessed using fine to medium grain garnet erodents at velocities of 200 and 300 m/s at ambient temperature. The CMCs used in the current work were comprised of nine different SiC/SiCs, one SiC/C, one C/SiC, one SiC/MAS, and one oxide/oxide. Erosion damage was quantified with respect to erosion rate and the damage morphology was assessed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D) image mapping. The CMCs response to erosion appeared to be very complicated due to their architectural complexity, multiple material constituents, and presence of pores. Effects of architecture, material constituents, density, matrix hardness, and elastic modulus of the CMCs were taken into account and correlated to overall erosion behavior. The erosion of monolithic ceramics such as silicon carbide and silicon nitrides was also examined to gain a better understanding of the governing damage mechanisms for the CMC material systems used in this work.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Gee, M. G. , and Hutchings, I. M. , 2002, “ General Approach and Procedures for Erosive Wear Testing,” National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, Measurement Good Practice Guide No. 56. http://www.npl.co.uk/publications/general-approach-and-procedures-for-erosive-wear-testing
Ruff, A. W. , and Ives, L. K. , 1975, “ Measurement of Solid Particle Velocity in Erosive Wear,” Wear, 35(1), pp. 195–199. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , 2008, “ Foreign Object Damage Phenomenon by Steel Ball Projectiles in a SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 91(9), pp. 2963–2968. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , and Kowalik, R. K. , 2008, “ Interlaminar Crack Growth Resistance of Various Ceramic Matrix Composite in Mode I and Mode II Loading,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130(3), p. 031301. [CrossRef]
Faucett, D. C. , Wright, J. , Ayre, M. , and Choi, S. R. , 2012, “ Effects of the Mode of Target Supports on Foreign Object Damage in an MI SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite,” Ceram. Trans., 234, pp. 231–243.
Choi, S. R. , Kowalik, R. W. , Alexander, D. J. , and Bansal, N. P. , 2009, “ Elevated-Temperature Stress Rupture in Interlaminar Shear of a Hi-Nic SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite,” Comp. Sci. Tech., 69(7–8), pp. 890–897. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , Bansal, N. P. , and Verilli, M. J. , 2005, “ Delayed Failure of Ceramic Matrix Composites in Tension at Elevated Temperatures,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 25(9), pp. 1629–1636. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , and Gyekenyesi, J. P. , 2005, “ Load-Rate Dependency of Ultimate Tensile Strength in Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures,” Int. J. Fatigue, 27(5), pp. 503–510. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , Faucett, D. C. , and Alexander, D. J. , 2014, “ Foreign Object Damage by Spherical Steel Projectiles in an N720/Alumina Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 97(12), pp. 3926–3934. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , Zhu, D.-M. , and Miller, R. E. , 2004, “ Mechanical Properties/Database of Plasma-Sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coatings,” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech., 1(4), pp. 330–342. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , Zhu, D.-M. , and Miller, R. E. , 2005, “ Effect of Sintering on Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 88, pp. 2589–2867. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , Pereira, J. M. , Janosik, L. A. , and Bhatt, R. T. , 2004, “ Foreign Object Damage in Flexure Bars of Two Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitrides,” Mat. Sci. Eng., A, 379(1–2), pp. 411–419. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , 2008, “ Foreign Object Damage Behavior in a Silicon Nitride Ceramic by Spherical Projectiles of Steel and Brass,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 497(1–2), pp. 160–167. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. R. , and Gyekenyesi, J. P. , 2002, “ ‘Ultra-Fast’ Fracture Strength of Advanced Structural Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures: An Approach to High-Temperature ‘Inert’ Strength,” Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Vol. 13, R.C. Bradt, D. Munz, M. Sakai, V. Ya. Shevchenko, and K. W. White, eds., Kluwer Academics/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 24–46.
ASTM, 2017, “ Test Method for Dynamic Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio for Advanced Ceramics by Impulse Excitation of Vibration,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM C1259.
ASTM, 2017, “ Test Method for Vickers Indentation Hardness of Advanced Ceramics,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM C1327.
Marshall, D. B. , 1983, “ Surface Damage in Ceramics: Implications for Strength Degradation, Erosion, and Wear,” Nitrogen Ceramics, F. L. Riley , ed., Nijhoff, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 635–656.
Breder, K. , De Portu, G. , Ritter, J. E. , and Fabbriche, D. , 1988, “ Erosion Damage and Strength Degradation of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 71(9), pp. 770–775. [CrossRef]
Lawn, B. R. , Marshall, D. B. , and Wiederhorn, S. M. , 1979, “ Strength Degradation of Glass Impacted With Sharp Particles—Part I: Annealed Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 62(1–2), pp. 66–70.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of a sample with respect to gun barrel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematics of the Mach 1 capable erosion system established

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Four basic types of erosion facilities used with solid erodent particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Examples of erosion damage in hot-section hardware of aeroengines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Results of particle distribution analysis for garnet particle #230 using dynamic imaging analysis and (b) SEM images of #230 garnet particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

(a) Erosion model used in monolithic brittle materials based on indentation fracture mechanics [1719]. Note that the lateral cracking underneath erosion particle is responsible for material removal as a predominant erosion mechanism. (b) An example of erosion damage in a monolithic SiC is shown on the right.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Illustrations of speculative erosion damage at fiber-rich (left) and matrix rich (right) regions in CMCs, showing a complexity in erosion process compared to the monolithic counterpart shown in Fig. 14

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

A sample of factors of consideration in erosion for CMC materials/components in aeroengines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Summary of erosion results of various propulsion materials conducted in phase I Experiment with #85 garnet particles at 200 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Erosion by material type of CMCs conducted in phase I experiment with #85 garnet particles at 300 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Erosion by fiber architecture of CMCs conducted in phase I experiment with #85 garnet particles at 300 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Summary of erosion results of various CMCs conducted in phase II experiment with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s (a). The plane of fiber cloth with respect to particle motion is illustrated in the inset (b) for the CP SiC/SiC CMC (component). P: parallel; N: normal.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Typical example of 3D erosion pattern in an SiC/SiC CMC with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s: (a) overall and (b) cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Typical example of erosion pattern in an SiC/SiC CMC with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s, showing preferential locations of erosion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Examples of fibers failures of various CMCs with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s, showing fiber breakages. The erosion damage of SiC monolithic ceramic is also shown for comparison.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effects of nominal material properties on erosion in various SiC/SiC with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s by (a) nominal density, (b) matrix hardness, and (c) elastic modulus

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In