Research Papers

Erosion in Gas-Turbine Grade Ceramic Matrix Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
N. Kedir

Naval Air Systems Command,
Patuxent River, MD 20670

C. Gong, L. Sanchez, M. J. Presby, S. Kane, D. C. Faucett

Naval Air Systems Command,
Patuxent River, MD 20670

S. R. Choi

Naval Air Systems Command,
Patuxent River, MD 20670
e-mail: sung.choi1@navy.mil

1Present address: School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

2Present address: Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325.

3Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received July 3, 2018; published online September 17, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(1), 011019 (Sep 17, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1363; doi: 10.1115/1.4040848 History: Received June 26, 2018; Revised July 03, 2018

Erosion behavior of a large number of gas-turbine grade ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) was assessed using fine to medium grain garnet erodents at velocities of 200 and 300 m/s at ambient temperature. The CMCs used in the current work were comprised of nine different SiC/SiCs, one SiC/C, one C/SiC, one SiC/MAS, and one oxide/oxide. Erosion damage was quantified with respect to erosion rate and the damage morphology was assessed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy in conjunction with three-dimensional (3D) image mapping. The CMCs response to erosion appeared to be very complicated due to their architectural complexity, multiple material constituents, and presence of pores. Effects of architecture, material constituents, density, matrix hardness, and elastic modulus of the CMCs were taken into account and correlated to overall erosion behavior. The erosion of monolithic ceramics such as silicon carbide and silicon nitrides was also examined to gain a better understanding of the governing damage mechanisms for the CMC material systems used in this work.

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Fig. 1

Examples of erosion damage in hot-section hardware of aeroengines

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Fig. 2

Four basic types of erosion facilities used with solid erodent particles

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Fig. 3

Schematics of the Mach 1 capable erosion system established

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup of a sample with respect to gun barrel

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Fig. 5

(a) Results of particle distribution analysis for garnet particle #230 using dynamic imaging analysis and (b) SEM images of #230 garnet particles

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Fig. 6

Summary of erosion results of various propulsion materials conducted in phase I Experiment with #85 garnet particles at 200 m/s

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Fig. 7

Erosion by material type of CMCs conducted in phase I experiment with #85 garnet particles at 300 m/s

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Fig. 8

Erosion by fiber architecture of CMCs conducted in phase I experiment with #85 garnet particles at 300 m/s

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Fig. 9

Summary of erosion results of various CMCs conducted in phase II experiment with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s (a). The plane of fiber cloth with respect to particle motion is illustrated in the inset (b) for the CP SiC/SiC CMC (component). P: parallel; N: normal.

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Fig. 10

Typical example of 3D erosion pattern in an SiC/SiC CMC with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s: (a) overall and (b) cross section

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Fig. 11

Typical example of erosion pattern in an SiC/SiC CMC with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s, showing preferential locations of erosion

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Fig. 12

Examples of fibers failures of various CMCs with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s, showing fiber breakages. The erosion damage of SiC monolithic ceramic is also shown for comparison.

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Fig. 13

Effects of nominal material properties on erosion in various SiC/SiC with #230 garnet particles at 300 m/s by (a) nominal density, (b) matrix hardness, and (c) elastic modulus

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Fig. 14

(a) Erosion model used in monolithic brittle materials based on indentation fracture mechanics [1719]. Note that the lateral cracking underneath erosion particle is responsible for material removal as a predominant erosion mechanism. (b) An example of erosion damage in a monolithic SiC is shown on the right.

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Fig. 15

Illustrations of speculative erosion damage at fiber-rich (left) and matrix rich (right) regions in CMCs, showing a complexity in erosion process compared to the monolithic counterpart shown in Fig. 14

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Fig. 16

A sample of factors of consideration in erosion for CMC materials/components in aeroengines



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