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Research Papers

Experimental Study on Pressure Losses in Porous Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
Giacomo Fantozzi

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Slottsvaegen 2-6,
Finspang SE-612 31, Sweden
e-mail: giacomofantozzi@live.it

Mats Kinell

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Slottsvaegen 2-6,
Finspang SE-612 31, Sweden
e-mail: Mats.Kinell@Siemens.com

Sara Rabal Carrera

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Slottsvaegen 2-6,
Finspang SE-612 31, Sweden
e-mail: Sara.Rabal@Siemens.com

Jenny Nilsson

Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB,
Slottsvaegen 2-6,
Finspang SE-612 31, Sweden
e-mail: Jenny.Nilsson@Siemens.com

Yves Kuesters

Siemens AG,
Corporate Technology,
Research in Energy and Electronics,
Coatings & Additive Manufacturing,
CT REE MDM COA-DE,
Siemensdamm 50,
Berlin 13629, Germany
e-mail: Yves.Kuesters@Siemens.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 25, 2018; final manuscript received July 2, 2018; published online December 3, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021037 (Dec 03, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1349; doi: 10.1115/1.4040868 History: Received June 25, 2018; Revised July 02, 2018

Recent technological advances in the field of additive manufacturing have made possible to manufacture turbine engine components characterized by controlled permeability in desired areas. These have shown great potential in cooling application such as convective cooling and transpiration cooling and may in the future contribute to an increase of the turbine inlet temperature. This study investigates the effects of the pressure ratio, the thickness of the porous material, and the hatch distance used during manufacturing on the discharge coefficient. Moreover, two different porous structures were tested, and in total, 70 test objects were investigated. Using a scanning electron microscope, it is shown that the porosity and pore radius distribution, which are a result from the used laser power, laser speed, and hatch distance during manufacturing, will characterize the pressure losses in the porous sample. Furthermore, the discharge coefficient increases with increasing pressure ratio, while it decreases with increasing thickness to diameter ratio. The obtained experimental data were used to develop a correlation for the discharge coefficient as a function of the geometrical properties and the pressure ratio.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 5

Section T-T (left), VL-VL (center), and VT-VT (right) of a porous sample manufactured using rot method

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Fig. 4

Section T-T (left), VL-VL (center), and VT-VT (right) of a porous sample manufactured using xy method

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Fig. 3

Scheme of the three cutting direction considered for the analysis of the sections. The T-T section is perpendicular to the building direction.

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Fig. 2

Pictures of two test objects, one printed with xy method (on the left) and one printed with rot method (on the right)

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Fig. 1

Scheme of the main parameters of selective laser melting process. Reproduced from Ref. [15], with the permission of AIP Publishing.

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Fig. 6

Section of a rot structure. In white, the metal structure, while the colors represent the balls of different radii that fill the void spaces.

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Fig. 7

Hydraulic diagram of the test rig

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Fig. 8

Exploded view of the porous sample support

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Fig. 11

T-T section of the sample XY_5 (left) and T-T section of the sample XY_4 (right)

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Fig. 12

Pore radius distribution for the structures XY_3 (xy) and ROT_1 (rot)

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Fig. 9

Pore radius distribution for the test objects of Table 2 (T-T section)

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Fig. 10

Mean pore radius versus porosity for the test objects in Table 2

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Fig. 14

Discharge coefficient versus hatch distance for a set of xy test objects printed in Inconel 718 where only the hatch distance was varied

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Fig. 13

Typical data for the discharge coefficient versus pressure ratio plot (Test object XY_3)

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Fig. 15

Discharge coefficient versus laser power for the test objects of Table 5

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Fig. 16

Discharge coefficient versus porosity for a set of xy test objects printed in Inconel 718 where only the hatch distance was varied

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Fig. 17

Discharge coefficient versus porosity for a set of xy test objects printed in Inconel 718 where hatch distance, laser power and laser speed were varied

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Fig. 20

Discharge coefficients calculated with the correlation versus the measured discharge coefficients for the xy test objects

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Fig. 21

Discharge coefficients calculated with the correlation versus the measured discharge coefficients for the rot test objects

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Fig. 18

Discharge coefficient versus pressure ratio for the test objects of Table 6

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Fig. 19

Discharge coefficient plotted against thickness-to-diameter ratio at Π = 1.4 for two set of xy test objects printed in Inconel 718 where only the thickness was varied

Tables

Errata

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