0
Research Papers

Development of a Criterion for a Robust Identification of Diffuser Rotating Stall Onset in Industrial Centrifugal Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
Alessandro Bianchini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Firenze 50139, Italy
e-mail: alessandro.bianchini@unifi.it

Giulia Andreini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Firenze 50139, Italy
e-mail: giulia.andreini@unifi.it

Lorenzo Ferrari

Department of Energy, Systems, Territory and
Construction Engineering,
University of Pisa,
Largo Lucio Lazzarino,
Pisa 56122, Italy
e-mail: lorenzo.ferrari@unipi.it

Dante Tommaso Rubino

Baker Hughes, a GE company,
Via Felice Matteucci 10,
Firenze 50127, Italy
e-mail: dantetommaso.rubino@bhge.com

Giovanni Ferrara

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via di Santa Marta 3,
Firenze 50139, Italy
e-mail: giovanni.ferrara@unifi.it

Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received July 4, 2018; published online September 19, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021003 (Sep 19, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1366; doi: 10.1115/1.4040863 History: Received June 26, 2018; Revised July 04, 2018

Recent studies showed that a prompt detection of the stall inception, connected with a specific model to predict its associated aerodynamic force, could provide room for an extension of the left margin of the operating curve of high-pressure centrifugal compressors. In industrial machines working in the field, however, robust procedures to detect and identify the phenomenon are still missing, i.e., the operating curve is almost ever cut preliminarily by the manufacturer by a proper safety margin; moreover, no agreement is found in the literature about a well-defined threshold to define the onset of the stall. In particular, in some cases, the intensity of the arising subsynchronous frequency is compared to the revolution frequency, while in many other ones it is compared to the blade passage frequency. A large experience in experimental stall analyses collected by the authors revealed that in some cases unexpected spikes could make this direct comparison not reliable for a robust automatic detection. To this end, a new criterion was developed based on an integral analysis of the area subtended to the entire subsynchronous spectrum of the dynamic pressure signal of probes positioned just outside the impeller exit. A dimensionless parameter was then defined to account for the spectrum area increase in proximity to stall inception. This new parameter enabled the definition of a reference threshold to highlight the arising of stall conditions, whose validity and increased robustness was here verified based on a set of experimental analyses of different types of full-stage test cases of industrial centrifugal compressors at the test rig.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Senoo, Y. , and Kinoshita, Y. , 1978, “ Limits in Rotating Stall and Stall in Vaneless Diffuser of Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 78-GT-19.
Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , and Baldassarre, L. , 2004, “ Rotating Stall in Centrifugal Compressor Vaneless Diffuser: Experimental Analysis of Geometrical Parameters Influence on Phenomenon Evolution,” J. Rotating Mach., 10(6), pp. 433–442. [CrossRef]
Kita, M. , Iwamoto, S. , Kiuchi, I. , and Kawashita, R. , 2008, “ Prediction of Subsynchronous Rotor Vibration Amplitude Caused by Rotating Stall,” 37th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 8–11, pp. 97–102. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4698/119b3d5d45b212870ed5b3f3e56b6b7d7288.pdf
Evans, B. F. , and Smalley, A. J. , 1984, “ Subsynchronous Vibrations in a High Pressure Centrifugal Compressor: A Case History,” Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, NASA Technical Report No. 19850005809. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850005809
Bently, R. , Goldman, P. , and Yuan, J. , 2001, “ Rotor Dynamics of Centrifugal Compressors in Rotating Stall,” Bently Rotor Dynamics Research Corporation, Minden, NV.
Frigne, P. , and Braembussche, R. V. D. , 1982, “ Comparative Study of Subsynchronous Rotating Flow Patterns in Centrifugal Compressors With Vaneless Diffusers,” Rotor Dynamic Instability Problems in High-Performance Turbomachinery, NASA Publication 2250, pp. 365–382.
Senoo, Y. , Kinoshita, Y. , and Ishida, M. , 1977, “ Asymmetric Flow in Vaneless Diffusers of Centrifugal Blowers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 99(1), pp. 104–113. [CrossRef]
Sorokes, J. M. , and Marshall, D. F. , 2000, “ A Review of Aerodynamically Induced Forces Acting on Centrifugal Compressors, and Resulting Vibration Characteristics of Rotors,” 29th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 18–21, pp. 263–280. http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/159770
Bianchini, A. , Biliotti, D. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Belardini, E. , Giachi, M. , Tapinassi, L. , and Vannini, G. , 2013, “ A Systematic Approach to Estimate the Impact of the Aerodynamic Force Induced by Rotating Stall in a Vaneless Diffuser on the Rotordynamic Behavior of Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(11), p. 112502. [CrossRef]
Fulton, J. W. , 1986, “ Subsynchronous Vibration of Multistage Centrifugal Compressors Forced by Rotating Stall,” NASA Lewis Research Center Rotordynamic Instability Problems in High-Performance Turbomachinery, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH, pp. 35–62.
Biliotti, D. , Bianchini, A. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Belardini, E. , Giachi, M. , Tapinassi, L. , and Vannini, G. , 2015, “ Analysis of the Rotordynamic Response of a Centrifugal Compressor Subject to Aerodynamic Loads Due to Rotating Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(2), p. 021002. [CrossRef]
Bently, R. , and Goldman, P. , 2000, “ Vibrational Diagnostics of Rotating Stall in Centrifugal Compressors,” ORBIT, First Quarter, 21, pp. 32–40.
Khisameev, I. G. , Guzel'baev, Y. Z. , and Khavkin, A. L. , 2007, “ Features of Performing Stall Tests and Adjusting Antistall Systems for Protecting Centrifugal Compressors With Electromagnetic Bearings,” Chem. Pet. Eng., 43(9–10), pp. 537–542. [CrossRef]
Smith, D. R. , and Wachel, J. C. , 1983, “ Nonsynchronous Forced Vibration in Centrifugal Compressors,” Turbomach. Int., pp. 21–24. http://www.engdyn.com/images/uploads/25-nonsynchronous_forced_vibration_in_centrifugal_compressors_-_drs&jcw.pdf
Munari, E. , D'Elia, G. , Morini, M. , Mucchi, E. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2017, “ Experimental Investigation of Vibrational and Acoustic Phenomena for Detecting the Stall and Surge of a Multistage Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64894.
Holzinger, F. , Wartzek, F. , Schiffer, H. P. , Leichtfuss, S. , and Nestle, M. , 2016, “ Self-Excited Blade Vibration Experimentally Investigated in Transonic Compressors: Acoustic Resonance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Möller, D. , Juengst, M. , Schiffer, H. P. , Giersch, T. , and Heinichen, F. , 2017, “ Influence of Rotor Tip Blockage on Near Stall Blade Vibrations in an Axial Compressor Rig,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-63660.
Zhang, Y. , Zheng, S. , Ma, C. , Chen, C. , and Wang, C. , 2018, “ Surge Vibration-Induced Nonlinear Behavior Regulation of Power Amplifier for Magnetic Bearing in a 315 kW Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 140(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Aretakis, N. , Mathioudakis, K. , Kefalakis, M. , and Papailiou, K. , 2004, “ Turbocharger Unstable Operation Diagnosis Using Vibroacoustic Measurements,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 126(4), pp. 840–847. [CrossRef]
Kabral, R. , and Åbom, M. , 2018, “ Investigation of Turbocharger Compressor Surge Inception by Means of an Acoustic Two-Port Model,” J. Sound Vib., 412, pp. 270–286. [CrossRef]
Lawless, P. B. , and Fleeter, S. , 1995, “ Rotating Stall Acoustic Signature in a Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor—Part 1: Vaneless Diffuser,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117(1), pp. 87–96. [CrossRef]
Lawless, P. B. , and Fleeter, S. , 1993, “ Rotating Stall Acoustic Signature in a Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor—Part 2: Vaned Diffuser,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-254.
Oakes, W. C. , Lawless, P. B. , and Fleeter, S. , 1998, “ A Characterization of Rotating Stall Behaviors in High and Low Speed Centrifugal Compressors,” International Compressor Engineering Conference, West Lafayette, IN, July 14–17, Paper No. 1335. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2334&context=icec
Day, E. , Lawless, P. B. , and Fleeter, S. , 2000, “ Centrifugal Compressor Multi-Mode Rotating Stall Control,” International Compressor Engineering Conference, West Lafayette, IN, July 25–28, Paper No. 1366. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2365&context=icec
Ishimoto, L. , De Souza, J. , de Norman Et Audehove, F. , da Silva Marques, B. , Baldassarre, L. , and Puaut, C. , 2012, “ Early Detection of Rotating Stall Phenomenon in Centrifugal Compressors by Means of ASME PTC 10 Type 2 Test,” 41st Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 24–27, pp. 1–8. http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/162981
Ullum, U. , Wright, J. , Dayi, O. , Dayi, O. , Ecder, A. , Soulaimani, A. , Pich, R. , and Kamath, H. , 2006, “ Prediction of Rotating Stall Within an Impeller of a Centrifugal Pump Based on Spectral Analysis of Pressure and Velocity Data,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 52, pp. 36–45. [CrossRef]
Bianchini, A. , Biliotti, D. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Belardini, E. , Giachi, M. , and Tapinassi, L. , 2014, “ Some Guidelines for the Experimental Characterization of Vaneless Diffuser Rotating Stall in Stages of Industrial Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26401.
Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Mengoni, C. P. , De Lucia, M. , and Baldassarre, L. , 2002, “ Experimental Investigation and Characterization of the Rotating Stall in a High Pressure Centrifugal Compressor—Part I: Influence of Diffuser Geometry on Stall Inception,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30389.
Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Mengoni, C. P. , De Lucia, M. , and Baldasarre, L. , 2002, “ Experimental Investigation and Characterization of the Rotating Stall in a High Pressure Centrifugal Compressor—Part II: Influence of Diffuser Geometry on Stage Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30390.
Cellai, A. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Mengoni, C. P. , and Baldassarre, L. , 2003, “ Experimental Investigation and Characterization of the Rotating Stall in a High Pressure Centrifugal Compressor—Part III: Influence of Diffuser Geometry on Stall Inception and Performance (2nd Impeller Tested),” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38390.
Cellai, A. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , Mengoni, C. P. , and Baldassarre, L. , 2003, “ Experimental Investigation and Characterization of the Rotating Stall in a High Pressure Centrifugal Compressor—Part IV: Impeller Influence on Diffuser Stability,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38394.
Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , and Baldassarre, L. , 2006, “ Experimental Investigation and Characterization of Vaneless Diffuser Rotating Stall—Part V: Influence of Diffuser Geometry on Stall Inception and Performance (3rd Impeller Tested),” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90693.
Carnevale, E. A. , Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , and Baldassarre, L. , 2006, “ Experimental Investigation and Characterization of Vaneless Diffuser Rotating Stall—Part VI: Reduction of Three Impeller Results,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90694.
Guzel'baev, Y. Z. , Khavkin, A. L. , and Khisameev, I. G. , 2006, “ Methods of Rotating Stall and Surge Detection in Centrifugal Compressors,” Chem. Pet. Eng., 42(5–6), pp. 320–329. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Zhang, J. , and Zhang, W. , 2015, “ Identify the Rotating Stall in Centrifugal Compressors by Fractal Dimension in Reconstructed Phase Space,” Entropy, 17(12), pp. 7888–7899. [CrossRef]
Huang, W. , Geng, S. , Zhu, J. , and Zhang, H. , 2007, “ Numerical Simulation of Rotating Stall in a Centrifugal Compressor With Vaned Diffuser,” J. Therm. Sci., 16(2), pp. 115–120. [CrossRef]
Bianchini, A. , Biliotti, D. , Rubino, D. T. , Ferrari, L. , and Ferrara, G. , 2015, “ Experimental Analysis of the Pressure Field Inside a Vaneless Diffuser From Rotating Stall Inception to Surge,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(11), p. 111007. [CrossRef]
API, 2002, “ Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Service Industry,” 7th ed., American Petroleum Institute, API Standard No. 617. https://www.api.org/~/media/files/publications/whats%20new/617_e8%20pa.pdf

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Quantities of use for defining the stall onset parameter (f* = f/REV, z = blade number)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

General scheme of the rig layout in the intermediate stage configuration [37]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Trend of the stall onset parameter for all the investigated study cases as a function of the dimensionless flow coefficient φ*

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Trend of in case l and case n (same 3d impeller) as a function of the dimensionless flow coefficient φ*

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Experimental trend of the work coefficient in case l as a function of the dimensionless flow coefficient φ*

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Trend of in case j and case k (same impeller and stage, different fluids) as a function of the dimensionless flow coefficient φ*

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Trend of in cases a–i and case m (2d impellers) as a function of the dimensionless flow coefficient φ*

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In