Research Papers

Wall Temperature Measurements in Gas Turbine Combustors With Thermographic Phosphors

[+] Author and Article Information
Patrick Nau

Institute of Combustion Technology,
German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: patrick.nau@dlr.de

Zhiyao Yin, Oliver Lammel, Wolfgang Meier

Institute of Combustion Technology,
German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Stuttgart 70569, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 22, 2018; final manuscript received June 26, 2018; published online December 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(4), 041021 (Dec 04, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1278; doi: 10.1115/1.4040716 History: Received June 22, 2018; Revised June 26, 2018

Phosphor thermometry has been developed for wall temperature measurements in gas turbines and gas turbine model combustors. An array of phosphors has been examined in detail for spatially and temporally resolved surface temperature measurements. Two examples are provided, one at high pressure (8 bar) and high temperature and one at atmospheric pressure with high time resolution. To study the feasibility of this technique for full-scale gas turbine applications, a high momentum confined jet combustor at 8 bar was used. Successful measurements up to 1700 K on a ceramic surface are shown with good accuracy. In the same combustor, temperatures on the combustor quartz walls were measured, which can be used as boundary conditions for numerical simulations. An atmospheric swirl-stabilized flame was used to study transient temperature changes on the bluff body. For this purpose, a high-speed setup (1 kHz) was used to measure the wall temperatures at an operating condition where the flame switches between being attached (M-flame) and being lifted (V-flame) (bistable). The influence of a precessing vortex core (PVC) present during M-flame periods is identified on the bluff body tip, but not at positions further inside the nozzle.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kerr, C. , and Ivey, P. , 2002, “ An Overview of the Measurement Errors Associated With Gas Turbine Aeroengine Pyrometer Systems,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 13(6), pp. 873–881. [CrossRef]
Suarez, E. , and Przirembel, H. R. , 1990, “ Pyrometry for Turbine Blade Development,” J. Propul. Power, 6(5), pp. 584–589. [CrossRef]
Lempereur, C. , Andral, R. , and Prudhomme, J. Y. , 2008, “ Surface Temperature Measurement on Engine Components by Means of Irreversible Thermal Coatings,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 19(10), p. 105501. [CrossRef]
Bachuchin, I. V. , Zabusov, O. O. , Morozov, V. A. , Nikolaenko, V. A. , and Saltykov, M. A. , 2011, “ Temperature Measurement With Irradiated Materials,” At. Energy, 110(3), pp. 178–183. [CrossRef]
Araguás Rodríguez, S. , Jelínek, T. , Michálek, J. , Yáñez-González, Á. , Schulte, F. , Pilgrim, C. C. , Feist, J. P. , and Skinner, S. J. , 2017, “ Accelerated Thermal Profiling of Gas Turbine Components Using Luminescent Thermal History Paints,” First Global Power and Propulsion Forum, Zurich, Switzerland, Jan. 16–18, Paper No. GPPF 2017.
Allison, S. W. , and Gillies, G. T. , 1997, “ Remote Thermometry With Thermographic Phosphors: Instrumentation and Applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 68(7), pp. 2615–2650. [CrossRef]
Chambers, M. , and Clarke, D. , 2009, “ Doped Oxides for High-Temperature Luminescence and Lifetime Thermometry,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res., 39(1), pp. 325–359. [CrossRef]
Aldén, M. , Omrane, A. , Richter, M. , and Särner, G. , 2011, “ Thermographic Phosphors for Thermometry: A Survey of Combustion Applications,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 37(4), pp. 422–461. [CrossRef]
Brübach, J. , Pflitsch, C. , Dreizler, A. , and Atakan, B. , 2013, “ On Surface Temperature Measurements With Thermographic Phosphors: A Review,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 39(1), pp. 37–60. [CrossRef]
Dorenbos, P. , 2005, “ Thermal Quenching of Eu2+ 5d-4f Luminescence in Inorganic Compounds,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 17(50), p. 8103. [CrossRef]
Witkowski, D. , and Rothamer, D. A. , 2017, “ A Methodology for Identifying Thermographic Phosphors Suitable for High-Temperature Gas Thermometry: Application to Ce3+ and Pr3+ Doped Oxide Hosts,” Appl. Phys. B, 123(8), p. 226. [CrossRef]
Heyes, A. , Seefeldt, S. , and Feist, J. , 2006, “ Two-Colour Phosphor Thermometry for Surface Temperature Measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol., 38(4–6), pp. 257–265. [CrossRef]
Fuhrmann, N. , Brübach, J. , and Dreizler, A. , 2013, “ Phosphor Thermometry: A Comparison of the Luminescence Lifetime and the Intensity Ratio Approach,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(2), pp. 3611–3618. [CrossRef]
Khalid, A. H. , Kontis, K. , and Behtash, H.-Z. , 2010, “ Phosphor Thermometry in Gas Turbines: Consideration Factors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part G, 224(7), pp. 745–755. [CrossRef]
Noel, B. W. , Borella, H. M. , Lewis, W. , Turley, W. D. , Beshears, D. L. , Capps, G. J. , Cates, M. R. , Muhs, J. D. , and Tobin, K. W. , 1991, “ Evaluating Thermographic Phosphors in an Operating Turbine Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 113(2), pp. 242–245. [CrossRef]
Eldridge, J. I. , Allison, S. W. , Jenkins, T. P. , Gollub, S. L. , Hall, C. A. , and Walker, D. G. , 2016, “ Surface Temperature Measurements From a Stator Vane Doublet in a Turbine Afterburner Flame Using a YAG:Tm Thermographic Phosphor,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 27(12), p. 125205. [CrossRef]
Feist, J. P. , Sollazzo, P. Y. , Berthier, S. , Charnley, B. , and Wells, J. , 2012, “ Application of an Industrial Sensor Coating System on a Rolls-Royce Jet Engine for Temperature Detection,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(1), p. 012101. [CrossRef]
Brübach, J. , Janicka, J. , and Dreizler, A. , 2009, “ An Algorithm for the Characterisation of Multi-Exponential Decay Curves,” Opt. Lasers Eng., 47(1), pp. 75–79. [CrossRef]
Yalin, A. P. , and Zare, R. N. , 2002, “ Effect of Laser Lineshape on the Quantitative Analysis of Cavity Ring-Down Signals,” Laser Phys., 12(8), p. 1065. https://web.stanford.edu/group/Zarelab/publinks/zarepub692.pdf
Knappe, C. , Algotsson, M. , Andersson, P. , Richter, M. , Tunér, M. , Johansson, B. , and Aldén, M. , 2013, “ Thickness Dependent Variations in Surface Phosphor Thermometry During Transient Combustion in an HCCI Engine,” Combust. Flame, 160(8), pp. 1466–1475. [CrossRef]
Steinberg, A. , Arndt, C. , and Meier, W. , 2013, “ Parametric Study of Vortex Structures and Their Dynamics in Swirl-Stabilized Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(2), pp. 3117–3125. [CrossRef]
Meier, W. , Weigand, P. , Duan, X. , and Giezendanner-Thoben, R. , 2007, “ Detailed Characterization of the Dynamics of Thermoacoustic Pulsations in a Lean Premixed Swirl Flame,” Combust. Flame, 150(1–2), pp. 2–26. [CrossRef]
Yin, Z. , Nau, P. , and Meier, W. , 2017, “ Responses of Combustor Surface Temperature to Flame Shape Transitions in a Turbulent Bi-Stable Swirl Flame,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 82, pp. 50–57. [CrossRef]
Lammel, O. , Severin, M. , Ax, H. , Lückerath, R. , Tomasello, A. , Emmi, Y. , Noll, B. , Aigner, M. , and Panek, L. , 2017, “ High Momentum Jet Flames at Elevated Pressure, A: Experimental and Numerical Investigation for Different Fuels,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64615.
Severin, M. , Lammel, O. , Ax, H. , Lückerath, R. , Meier, W. , Aigner, M. , and Heinze, J. , 2017, “ High Momentum Jet Flames at Elevated Pressure, B: Detailed Investigation of Flame Stabilization With Simultaneous PIV and OH-LIF,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64556.
Kissel, T. , Brübach, J. , Euler, M. , Frotscher, M. , Litterscheid, C. , Albert, B. , and Dreizler, A. , 2013, “ Phosphor Thermometry: On the Synthesis and Characterisation of Y3Al5O12:Eu (YAG:Eu) and YAlO3:Eu (Yap:Eu),” Mater. Chem. Phys., 140(2–3), pp. 435–440. [CrossRef]
Brübach, J. , Feist, J. P. , and Dreizler, A. , 2008, “ Characterization of Manganese-Activated Magnesium Fluorogermanate With Regards to Thermographic Phosphor Thermometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 19(2), p. 025602. [CrossRef]
Nau, P. , Yin, Z. , Geigle, K. P. , and Meier, W. , 2017, “ Wall Temperature Measurements at Elevated Pressures and High Temperatures in Sooting Flames in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor,” Appl. Phys. B, 123(12), p. 279. [CrossRef]
Abou Nada, F. , Knappe, C. , Aldén, M. , and Richter, M. , 2016, “ Improved Measurement Precision in Decay Time-Based Phosphor Thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B, 122(6), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Brübach, J. , Dreizler, A. , and Janicka, J. , 2007, “ Gas Compositional and Pressure Effects on Thermographic Phosphor Thermometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 18(3), pp. 764–770. [CrossRef]
Pareja, J. , Litterscheid, C. , Kaiser, B. , Euler, M. , Fuhrmann, N. , Albert, B. , Molina, A. , Ziegler, J. , and Dreizler, A. , 2014, “ Surface Thermometry in Combustion Diagnostics by Sputtered Thin Films of Thermographic Phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B, 117(1), pp. 85–93. [CrossRef]
Cates, M. , Allison, S. , Jaiswal, S. , and Beshears, D. , 2003, “ YAG:Dy and YAG:Tm Fluorescence to 1700 C,” Proc. Int. Instr. Symp., 49, pp. 389–400.
Chepyga, L. M. , Jovicic, G. , Vetter, A. , Osvet, A. , Brabec, C. J. , and Batentschuk, M. , 2016, “ Photoluminescence Properties of Thermographic Phosphors YAG:Dy and YAG:Dy, Er Doped With Boron and Nitrogen,” Appl. Phys. B, 122(8), pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Jovicic, G. , Zigan, L. , Pfadler, S. , and Leipertz, A. , 2012, “ Simultaneous Two-Dimensional Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Gas Flow Applying Thermographic Phosphors,” 16th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 9–12. http://ltces.dem.ist.utl.pt/LXLASER/lxlaser2012/upload/95_paper_czufzu.pdf
Hertle, E. , Chepyga, L. , Batentschuk, M. , and Zigan, L. , 2016, “ Influence of Codoping on the Luminescence Properties of YAG:Dy for High Temperature Phosphor Thermometry,” J. Lumin., 182, pp. 200–207. [CrossRef]
Syred, N. , 2006, “ A Review of Oscillation Mechanisms and the Role of the Precessing Vortex Core (PVC) in Swirl Combustion Systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 32(2), pp. 93–161. [CrossRef]
Oberleithner, K. , Stöhr, M. , Im, S. H. , Arndt, C. M. , and Steinberg, A. M. , 2015, “ Formation and Flame-Induced Suppression of the Precessing Vortex Core in a Swirl Combustor: Experiments and Linear Stability Analysis,” Combust. Flame, 162(8), pp. 3100–3114. [CrossRef]
Morley, C. , 2010, “ Gaseq, A Chemical Equilibrium Program for Windows,” Version 0.79b, accessed Nov. 10, http://www.gaseq.co.uk/
Neal, N. J. , Jordan, J. , and Rothamer, D. , 2013, “ Simultaneous Measurements of In-Cylinder Temperature and Velocity Distribution in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine Using Thermographic Phosphors,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(1), pp. 300–318. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the optical setup for simultaneous phosphor thermometry and OH LIF measurements [23]. (b) Phosphor coating on the base plate and bluff body of the combustor. Measurement positions 1–5 on the bluff body are marked.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the FLOX® model combustor with coordinate system, dimensions, and optical arrangement for wall temperature measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of the investigated phosphors after excitation at 355 nm (YAG:Dy and SV67), 266 nm (YAG:Eu and YAG:Tb), or 532 nm (ruby). Spectra of YAG:Dy and YAG:Tb were measured in a furnace at 1100 K. The spectrum of YAG:Eu is adapted from Kissel et al. [26] and measured at room temperature, as well as the spectra of SV67 and ruby.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Calibration curves for the investigated phosphors. A polynomial fitted to the measured data points is drawn as a line.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Sensitivity of the investigated phosphors calculated with Eq. (2) from the calibration curves (decay rate τ against temperature T) shown in Fig. 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Decay curves of YAG:Tb and YAG:Eu at 1100 K. The inset shows the influence of the fitting window (tstart = c1 × τ and tend = c2 × τ as defined in Ref. [18]) on the obtained decay rate.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Average OH* chemiluminescence images taken during the V- and M-flame periods adopted from Yin et al. [23]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Time traces of the wall temperature (left) on the bluff body for positions 1 (bluff body tip, y = 0 mm) to 5 (y = −2 mm). The gray regions in the time traces denote M-shape flame operation and were used for the calculation of the fast Fourier transformation (right).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature on a ceramic probe for different flame conditions. Error bars include errors from the calibration procedure and the measurement precision. The relative standard deviation of individual laser shots is shown in the bottom.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Temperatures on the combustor quartz walls. The temperature field was interpolated between the measurement points (YAG:Eu: squares and YAG:Dy: diamonds).



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In