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Research Papers

Gas Turbine Fouling Offshore: Effective Online Water Wash Through High Water-to-Air Ratio

[+] Author and Article Information
Stian Madsen

Statoil ASA,
Stavanger 4035, Norway
e-mail: sm28@statoil.com

Lars E. Bakken

NTNU,
Department of Energy and Process Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science
and Technology,
Trondheim 7491, Norway
e-mail: lars.e.bakken@ntnu.no

Manuscript received June 22, 2018; final manuscript received July 6, 2018; published online December 3, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(4), 041015 (Dec 03, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1296; doi: 10.1115/1.4041002 History: Received June 22, 2018; Revised July 06, 2018

Optimized operation of gas turbines is discussed for a fleet of 11 GE LM2500PE engines at a Statoil North Sea offshore field in Norway. Three engines are generator drivers, and eight engines are compressor drivers. Several of the compressor drive engines are running at peak load (T5.4 control), hence, the production rate is limited by the available power from these engines. The majority of the engines discussed run continuously without redundancy, hence, the gas turbine uptime is critical for the field's production and economy. The performance and operational experience with online water wash at high water-to-air ratio (w.a.r.), as well as successful operation at longer maintenance intervals and higher average engine performance are described. The water-to-air ratio is significantly increased compared to the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) limit (OEM limit is 17 l/min which yields approximately 0.5% water-to-air ratio). Today the engines are operated at a water rate of 50 l/min (three times the OEM limit) which yields a 1.4% water-to-air ratio. Such a high water-to-air ratio has been proven to be the key parameter for obtaining good online water wash effectiveness. Possible downsides of high water-to-air ratio have been thoroughly studied.

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References

Syverud, E. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2005, “ On-Line Water Wash Test of GE J85-13,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68702.
Meher-Homji, C. B. , Chaker, M. A. , and Motiwala, H. , 2001, “ Gas Turbine Performance Deterioration,” 30th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, pp. 139–175. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9c36/410dcfdf2c2d7d7ea67769479213e468963a.pdf
Meher-Homji, C. B. , and Bromley, A. , 2004, “ Gas Turbine Axial Compressor Fouling and Washing,” 33rd Turbo-machinery Symposium, Houston, TX, pp. 163–191. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6eef/28eeafe2b893925b1741c003bba6cf36b7f4.pdf
Krampf, F. M. , 1992, “ A Practical Guide for Gas Turbine Performance Field and Test Data Analysis,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-427.
Madsen, S. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2017, “ Gas Turbine Fouling Offshore: Correction Methodology Compressor Efficiency,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-63025.
Madsen, S. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2014, “ Gas Turbine Operation Offshore; On-Line Compressor Wash Operational Experience,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25727.
Madsen, S. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2016, “ Gas Turbine Operation Offshore; Increased Operating Interval and Higher Engine Performance Through Optimized Intake Air Filter System,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56066.
European Standard, 2012, “ Particulate Air Filters for General Ventilation—Determination of the Filtration Performance,” Standard Prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 195 “Air Filters for General Air Cleaning,” European Standard EN 779:2012.
Madsen, S. , Watvedt, J. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2018, “ Gas Turbine Fouling Offshore: Air Intake Filtration Optimization,” ASME Paper No. GT2018-75613.
Saravanamuttoo, H. I. H. , Rogers, G. F. C. , Cohen, H. , and Straznicky, P. V. , 2009, Gas Turbine Theory, 6th ed., Pearson Education Canada, Harlow, UK.
Syverud, E. , Brekke, O. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2005, “ Axial Compressor Deterioration Caused by Saltwater Ingestion,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68701.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Typical figures of HPC degradation

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Fig. 2

Engine parameters, function of ambient temperature

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Fig. 3

Engine inlet/Bellmouth

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Fig. 4

Variation of N1 and T5.4 during water ingestion

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Fig. 5

Variation of T3 and PS3 during water ingestion

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Fig. 6

Variation of N1 and T5.4 during water ingestion

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Fig. 7

Variation of T3 and PS3 during water ingestion

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Fig. 8

Variation of N1 and T5.4 during water ingestion

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Fig. 9

Variation of T3 and PS3 during water ingestion

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Fig. 10

High pressure compressor efficiency 50 l/min

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Fig. 11

High pressure compressor efficiency 30 l/min

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Fig. 12

Stage 1 rotor blade SS

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Fig. 13

Stage 1 rotor blade PS

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Fig. 14

Stage 7 rotor blade SS

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Fig. 15

Stage 7 rotor blade PS

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Fig. 16

Stage 7 rotor blade PS

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Fig. 17

Velocity triangles axial compressor stage

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Fig. 18

Flow path in axial compressor stage

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Fig. 19

Blade spacing and velocity distribution through passage

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Fig. 20

Axial velocity distributions

Tables

Errata

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