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Research Papers

A Method and Apparatus for Direct Enthalpy Rise Measurement for Gas Compression

[+] Author and Article Information
Klaus Brun

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: Klaus.brun@swri.org

Sarah Simons

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: Sarah.Simons@swri.org

Kelsi Katcher

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: Kelsi.Katcher@swri.org

Ryan Cater

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: Ryan.Cater@swri.org

Brandon Ridens

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: Brandon.Ridens@swri.org

Rainer Kurz

Solar Turbines, Inc.,
San Diego, CA 92101
e-mail: rkurz@solarturbines.com

Manuscript received June 29, 2018; final manuscript received July 11, 2018; published online October 1, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021013 (Oct 01, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1406; doi: 10.1115/1.4041023 History: Received June 29, 2018; Revised July 11, 2018

Gas property prediction is necessary for proper design of compressors. Equations of state are utilized to predict the thermo-physical gas properties needed for such calculations. These are semi-empirical models that allow the calculation of thermodynamic properties such as density, enthalpy, and speed of sound of gas mixtures for known pressures and temperature. Currently, there is limited or no data publically available to verify the results of these equation of state calculations for the range of pressures, temperatures, and gas compositions relevant to many oil and gas applications. Especially for isentropic enthalpy head (i.e., the enthalpy rise along constant entropy lines), which is a critical parameter required to accurately design and performance test compressors, limited public domain data are available for equation of state validation. In this paper, a method and test apparatus is described to measure compression enthalpy rise directly. In this apparatus, a test gas is compressed using a fast acting piston inside an adiabatic autoclave. Test results are then corrected using calibration efficiencies from a known reference gas compression process at a similar Reynolds number. The paper describes the test apparatus, calibration, measurement methodology, and test results for one complex hydrocarbon gas composition at elevated temperatures and pressures. An uncertainty analysis of the new measurement method is also presented and results are compared to several equations of state. The results show that commonly used equations of state significantly underpredicted the compression enthalpy rise for the test gas case by more than 6%.

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References

Coogan, S. , Brun, K. , Simons, S. , Ridens, B. , and Kurz, R. , 2016, “ Calculation of Enthalpy and Entropy From Experimentally Measurable Quantities,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56646.
Ridens, B. , Simons, S. , Coogan, S. , Brun, K. , and Kurz, R. , 2016, “ Equation of State Comparisons and Evaluations for Applications Through Gas Property Testing and Derivations,” Gas Machinery Conference, Denver, CO, Oct. 2–5.
Kurz, R. , and Ohanian, S. , 2003, “ Solar Turbine's Incorporated Modeling Turbomachinery in Pipeline Simulations,” Pipeline Simulation Interest Group, Berne, Switzerland.
Brun, K. , and Rainer, K. , 2001, “ Measurement Uncertainties Encountered During Gas Turbine Driven Compressor Field Testing,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-001.
Lemmon, E. W. , Huber, M. L. , and McLinden, M. O. , 2013, “ NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version 9.1,” Standard Reference Data Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Photo of the test loop arrangement

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Fig. 2

EOS comparison for SOS [2]

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Fig. 3

EOS comparison for density [2]

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Fig. 4

Heavy hydrocarbon equation of state comparison for SOS (Feet/square) [2]

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Fig. 5

Schematic of apparatus to test

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Fig. 6

Solid model of enthalpy rise test apparatus

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Fig. 7

Welded thermocouple bead

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Fig. 8

Solid model of enthalpy rise test apparatus with instrumentation locations labeled

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Fig. 9

Installation of the custom built SwRI thermocouple

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Fig. 10

Enthalpy rise apparatus assembly, top view

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Fig. 11

Calibration curve for enthalpy rise device. Curve derived using nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

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Fig. 12

Calculated enthalpy rise versus EOS predicted values for the methane mix test gas

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Fig. 13

Average calculated enthalpy rise and average EOS predicted enthalpy rise for the methane mix test point

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Fig. 14

Percent difference in calculated enthalpy rise versusEOS predicted values for the methane mix test gas (EOS-calculated/calculated)

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