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Research Papers

The Influence of Thermal Transient Rates on Coated Turbine Parts' Life Expectancy

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander Staroselsky

United Technologies Research Center,
East Hartford, CT 06108
e-mail: starosav@utrc.utc.com

Thomas J. Martin

United Technologies Research Center,
East Hartford, CT 06108
e-mail: martintj@utrc.utc.com

Luke Borkowski

United Technologies Research Center,
East Hartford, CT 06108
e-mail: borkowlb@utrc.utc.com

Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received July 16, 2018; published online December 12, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(4), 041034 (Dec 12, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1376; doi: 10.1115/1.4041110 History: Received June 26, 2018; Revised July 16, 2018

During rapid engine throttling operations, turbine airfoils can experience very rapid heating and cooling, particularly at take-off conditions. These rapid transient events lead to the generation of high thermal gradients and nonuniform stress distributions through the thermal barrier coating (TBC), environmental barrier/bond coating, and substrate. This, in turn, can lead to coating delamination, overheat of the substrate materials, creep, and thermo-mechanical fatigue of the part. We present the process and computer modeling methodology for a physics-based prediction of deformation, damage, crack propagation and local failure modes in coated turbine airfoils and other parts operating at hot section turbine environment conditions as a function of engine operational regimes, with a particular emphasis on rapid transient events. The overall goal is to predict the effects and severity of the cooling and heating thermal rates on transient thermal mechanical fatigue life of coated hot parts (turbine airfoils, blade outer air seals, and combustor liners). The computational analysis incorporates time-accurate, coupled aerothermodynamics with nonlinear deformation thermal-structural finite element modeling, and fracture mechanics modeling for high-rate thermal transient events. TBC thermal failure and spallation are introduced by the use of interface fracture toughness and interface property evolution as well as dissipated energy rate. The spallation model allows estimations of the part remaining life as a function of the heating/cooling rates. Applicability of the developed model is verified using experimental coupons and calibrated against burner rig test data for high-flux thermal cycles. Our results show a decrease in TBC spall life due to high-rate transient events.

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References

Auxier, T. , Bonner, G. A. , Clevenger, D. , and Finger, S. N. , 1985, “ Military Engine Durability Improvements Through Innovative Advancement in Turbine Design and Materials,” AIAA Paper No. AIAA-8501221.
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Sundaram, S. , Lipkin, D. M. , Johnson, C. A. , and Hutchinson, J. W. , 2013, “ The Influence of Transient Thermal Gradients and Substrate Constraint on Delamination of Thermal Barrier Coatings,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 80(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Jackson, R. W. , and Begley, M. R. , 2014, “ Critical Cooling Rates to Avoid Transient-Driven Cracking in Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Systems,” Intl. J. Solids Struct., 51(6), pp. 1364–1374. [CrossRef]
Staroselsky, A. , Martin, T. J. , and Cassenti, B. , 2015, “ Transient Thermal Analysis and Viscoplastic Damage Model for Life Prediction of Turbine Components,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(4), p. 042501. [CrossRef]
Kersey, R. K. , Staroselsky, A. , Dudzinski, D. C. , and Genest, M. , 2013, “ Thermomechanical Fatigue Crack Growth From Laser Drilled Holes in Single Crystal Nickel Based Superalloy,” Int. J. Fatigue, 55, pp. 183–193. [CrossRef]
Meier, S. M. , Nissley, D. M. , and Sheffler, K. D. , 1991, “ Thermal Barrier Coating Life Prediction Model Development,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH, Report No. NASA CR-189111.
Hillery, R. V. , Pilsner, B. H. , McKnight, R. L. , Cook, T. S. , and Hartle, M. S. , 1988, “ Thermal Barrier Coating Life Prediction Model Development,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH, Report No. NASA CR 180807 https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19890004250.pdf.
Farris, R. J. , and Bauer, C. L. , 1988, “ A Self-Delamination Method of Measuring the Surface Energy of Adhesion of Coatings,” J. Adhes., 26(4), pp. 293–300. [CrossRef]
Witz, G. , Staerk, K. F. , Maggi, C. M. , Krasselt, U. , and Bossmann, H.-P. , 2014, “ Burner Rig Testing of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Lifetime Prediction,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-2532.
Arai, M. , Okajima, Y. , and Kishimoto, K. , 2007, “ Mixed-Mode Interfacial Fracture Toughness for Thermal Barrier Coating,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 74(13), pp. 2055–2069. [CrossRef]
Abaqus Analysis User's Guide, 2014, Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, accessed Aug. 24, 2018, http://dsk.ippt.pan.pl/docs/abaqus/v6.13/books/usb/default.htm

Figures

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Fig. 1

Gradual (a) and fast snap accel/decel (b) transient engine profiles, and their thermal stress responses (c) and (d), respectively, at the leading edge of a first-stage turbine blade

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Fig. 2

Images and illustrations of high-heat flux burner rig

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Fig. 3

Thermal stress cracking of APS coated specimens at topcoat surface

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Fig. 4

Spallation of APS coated specimens due to horizontal interface cracking

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Fig. 5

Spall life of APS coated specimens as normalized number of cycles to failure versus topcoat–bond coat interface temperature and through-thickness temperature difference

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Fig. 6

Topcoat and bond coat interface stresses predicted for rig tests of APS and EB-PVD coupons versus time for different temperature gradients and heating/cooling rates

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Fig. 7

Predicted radial stress plotted on scaled (10×) deformed geometry of TBC specimen with centered penny-shaped crack

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Fig. 8

Effect of transient rate (ramp-up/-down time) on strain energy release rate

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Fig. 9

Predicted temperatures on TBC (a) and coating–alloy interface (b) of a first-stage high turbine blade

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Fig. 10

Predicted equivalent stress profile of the blade cut at midspan through the center of the delamination at 0.2 s

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Fig. 11

Energy release rates for the crack on blade pressure side. Predicted energy release rate for 30 s ramp transient case: (a) G for fast 0.2 s ramp and (b) G for 30 s ramp.

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Fig. 12

Energy release rates for blade leading edge crack. Predicted energy release rate for 30 s ramp transient case: (a) G for fast 0.2 s ramp and (b) G for 30 s ramp.

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