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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Experimental Investigation of an Inverted Brayton Cycle for Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery

[+] Author and Article Information
Ian Kennedy

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: ijk25@bath.ac.uk

Zhihang Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: z.chen3@bath.ac.uk

Bob Ceen

Axes Design Ltd,
Malvern WR14 4JU, UK
e-mail: bobceen@hotmail.co.uk

Simon Jones

HIETA Technologies Ltd,
Bristol BS16 7FR, UK
e-mail: simonjones@hieta.biz

Colin D. Copeland

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: c.d.copeland@bath.ac.uk

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 10, 2018; final manuscript received July 17, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(3), 032301 (Oct 04, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1476; doi: 10.1115/1.4041109 History: Received July 10, 2018; Revised July 17, 2018

Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine (ICE) contain approximately 30% of the total energy released from combustion of the fuel. In order to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions, there are a number of technologies available to recover some of the otherwise wasted energy. The inverted Brayton cycle (IBC) is one such technology. The purpose of this study is to conduct a parametric experimental investigation of the IBC. The hot air from a turbocharger test facility is used. The system is sized to operate using the exhaust gases produced by a 2 l turbocharged engine at motorway cruise conditions. A number of parameters are investigated that impact the performance of the system such as turbine inlet temperature, system pressure drop, and compressor inlet temperature. The results confirm that the output power is strongly affected by the turbine inlet temperature and system pressure drop. The study also highlights the packaging and performance advantages of using an additively manufactured heat exchanger to reject the excess heat. Due to rotordynamic issues, the speed of the system was limited to 80,000 rpm rather than the target 120,000 rpm. However, the results show that the system can generate a specific work of up to 17 kJ/kg at 80,000 rpm. At full speed, it is estimated that the system can develop approximately 47 kJ/kg, which represents a thermal efficiency of approximately 5%.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Inverted Brayton cycle

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Fig. 2

Test setup showing key components

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Fig. 3

Turbomachinery housing designed and manufactured for this testing

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Fig. 4

Selectively laser melted, high performance heat exchanger

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Fig. 5

Bearing lubrication system

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Fig. 6

Inverted Brayton cycle with high speed dynamometer installed in hot gas stand

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Fig. 7

Computational fluid dynamics model of the compressor (left) and turbine (right) including inlet domain and volute

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Fig. 8

Comparison of CFD and experimental isentropic efficiencies

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Fig. 9

Specific work and turbomachinery performance as a function of turbine inlet temperature

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Fig. 10

Specific work and turbomachinery performance as a function of system pressure drop

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Fig. 11

Specific work and turbomachinery performance as a function of compressor inlet temperature

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Fig. 12

Specific work and turbomachinery performance as a function of speed

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Fig. 13

Heat exchanger effectiveness and pressure loss

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Fig. 14

One-dimensional gas-dynamic model of the experimental IBC system

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