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Research Papers

Investigation on the Stall Inception Circumferential Position and Stall Process Behavior in a Centrifugal Compressor With Volute

[+] Author and Article Information
Hanzhi Zhang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: 13488680948@163.com

Ce Yang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: yangce@bit.edu.cn

Dengfeng Yang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: dfqiuchong@126.com

Wenli Wang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: 13167597567@163.com

Changmao Yang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: yangcm@bit.edu.cn

Mingxu Qi

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: qimx@bit.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 11, 2018; final manuscript received July 15, 2018; published online October 18, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021030 (Oct 18, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1479; doi: 10.1115/1.4041108 History: Received July 11, 2018; Revised July 15, 2018

The present paper numerically and experimentally investigates the stall inception mechanisms in a centrifugal compressor with volute. Current studies about stall inception pay more attention on the axial compressors than the centrifugal compressors; especially, the circumferential position of stall inception onset and the stall process in the centrifugal compressor with asymmetric volute structure have not been studied sufficiently yet. In this work, the compressor performance experiment was conducted and the casing wall static pressure distributions were obtained by 72 static pressure sensors first. Then, the full annular unsteady simulations were carried out at different stable operating points, and the time-averaged static pressure distributions were compared with the experimental results. Finally, the stall process of the compressor was investigated by unsteady simulations in detail. Results show that the stall inception onset is determined by the impeller leading edge (LE) spillage flow, and the occurrence time of trailing edge (TE) backflow is prior to the LE spillage. The nonuniform static pressure circumferential distribution at impeller outlet induced by volute tongue causes the two stall inception regions locating at certain circumferential positions, which are 120 deg and 300 deg circumferential positions at impeller LE, corresponding to the circumferential static pressure peak (PP) and bulge regions at impeller outlet, respectively. In detail, at rotor revolution 2.86, a small disturbance that the incoming/tip clearance flow interface is perpendicular to axial direction occurs at 120 deg position, but this disturbance did not cause the compressor stall. Then at revolution 7, the first stall inception zone (spillage region) occurs at 120 deg position, causing the compressor stall with positive pressure ratio performance. At approximately revolution 23, the second stall inception zone occurs at about 300 deg position; however, both the intensity and size of this stall inception zone are smaller than those of the first stall inception zone. These two stall inception zones are not moving along circumferential direction because the stall inception circumferential position is dominated by the impeller outlet static pressure distribution. Even then, the obvious low frequency signals appear after the spillage crossing two blade LEs, because at this moment, the spillage vortex caused by the tip leakage flow begins to shed. However, due to the asymmetric structure limitation, this vortex cannot move across full annular. Furthermore, the spillage vortexes cause the local low static pressure zone ahead of blade LE in the centrifugal compressor with volute, suggesting that the spillage can be predicted by the steady casing wall static pressure measuring. The development of blockage zones at impeller LE is also investigated quantitatively by analyzing the stall blockage effect.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Compressor pressure ratio performance comparison

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Fig. 2

Compressor installed in experiment bench

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Fig. 1

Compressor volute with measuring points

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Fig. 4

Casing wall static pressure distributions, at 80,000 rpm and operating point A (0.26 kg/s)

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Fig. 10

Time–space contours of static pressure and mass flux at 98% span and impeller outlet plane during 10 revs: (a) static pressure and (b) mass flux

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Fig. 11

Entropy distribution contours at S3 plane of x/b = −0.04 in T1 and T2: (a) T1 and (b) T2

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Fig. 5

Casing wall static pressure distributions during the compressor stall process at 80,000 rpm and different flow rates from simulation

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Fig. 6

(a) Positions of numerical probes in the relative frame at the initial time of each rotor revolution and the positions of numerical probes in the fixed frame, at impeller inlet S3 plane of x/b = −0.04; (b) sketch of impeller inlet S3 plane and outlet plane: (a) numerical probes in the relative frame and fixed frame and (b) sketch of inlet S3 plane and outlet plane

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Fig. 7

Inlet/outlet flow rate evolutions and static pressure evolutions in the relative frame during the stall process

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Fig. 8

Static pressure evolutions in the fixed frame during the stall process: (a) 45 revs and (b) 20 revs

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Fig. 9

Time–space contours of entropy, static temperature and mass flux, at 98% span and impeller inlet S3 plane of x/b = −0.04, during 45 revs

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Fig. 12

Entropy distribution contours and streamlines at 98% span (below blade tip) of T1 and T2

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Fig. 13

Static pressure and entropy distributions at 98% span and 3D leakage flow streamlines and entropy distribution of blade 1 at T2: (a) static pressure and entropy distributions at 98% span and (b) 3D leakage flow streamlines and entropy distribution of blade 1

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Fig. 21

Blockage effect variation during the stall process and corresponding entropy distributions at S3 plane of x/b = −0.04

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Fig. 14

Static pressure and entropy distributions at 98% span and 3D leakage flow streamlines and entropy distribution of blade 4 at T3: (a) static pressure and entropy distributions at 98% span and (b) 3D leakage flow streamlines and entropy distribution of blade 4

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Fig. 15

Iso-surface of Q value and Vz on casing wall in T2

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Fig. 16

Pitch averaged streamlines in the passage between blade 1 and blade 2 at T2

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Fig. 17

Vorticity magnitude distribution at 98% span and at T2: (a) LE of blade 1 and (b) LE of blade 4

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Fig. 18

Iso-surface of Q value and Vz on casing wall at (a) LE of blade 1 and (b) LE of blade 4 in T3

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Fig. 19

Vorticity magnitude distribution at 98% span and at T3

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Fig. 20

Frequency spectrum during different rotor revolution at 120 deg circumferential position and ahead of main blade LE tip region

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