Research Papers

Reconstruction and Analysis of the Acoustic Transfer Matrix of a Reheat Flame From Large-Eddy Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Mirko Bothien

Ansaldo Energia,
Römerstrasse 36,
Baden CH-5400, Switzerland
e-mail: mirko.bothien@ansaldoenergia.com

Demian Lauper

Ansaldo Energia,
Römerstrasse 36,
Baden CH-5400, Switzerland

Yang Yang, Alessandro Scarpato

Ansaldo Energia,
Römerstrasse 36,
Baden CH-5400, Switzerland

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: CADFEM (Suisse), Aadorf 8355, Switzerland

Manuscript received July 2, 2018; final manuscript received July 23, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021018 (Oct 04, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1413; doi: 10.1115/1.4041151 History: Received July 02, 2018; Revised July 23, 2018

Lean premix technology is widely spread in gas turbine combustion systems, allowing modern power plants to fulfill very stringent emission targets. These systems are, however, also prone to thermoacoustic instabilities, which can limit the engine operating window. The thermoacoustic analysis of a combustor is thus a key element in its development process. An important ingredient of this analysis is the characterization of the flame response to acoustic fluctuations, which is straightforward for lean-premixed flames that are propagation stabilized, since it can be measured atmospherically. Ansaldo Energia's GT26 and GT36 reheat combustion systems feature a unique technology where fuel is injected into a hot gas stream from a first combustor, which is propagation stabilized, and auto-ignites in a sequential combustion chamber. The present study deals with the flame response of mainly auto-ignition stabilized flames to acoustic and temperature fluctuations for which a computational fluid dynamics system identification (SI) approach is chosen. The current paper builds on recent works, which detail and validate a methodology to analyze the dynamic response of an auto-ignition flame to extract the flame transfer function (FTF) using unsteady large-Eddy simulations (LES). In these studies, the flame is assumed to behave as a single-input single-output (SISO) or a multi-input single-output (MISO) system. The analysis conducted in GT2015-42622 qualitatively highlights the important role of temperature and equivalence ratio fluctuations, but these effects are not separated from velocity fluctuations. Hence, this topic is addressed in GT2016-57699, where the flame is treated as a multiparameter system and compressible LES are conducted to extract the frequency-dependent FTF to describe the effects of axial velocity, temperature, equivalence ratio, and pressure fluctuations on the flame response. For lean-premixed flames, a common approach followed in the literature assumes that the acoustic pressure is constant across the flame and that the flame dynamics are governed by the response to velocity perturbations only, i.e., the FTF. However, this is not necessarily the case for reheat flames that are mainly auto-ignition stabilized. Therefore, in this paper, we present the full 2 × 2 transfer matrix of a predominantly auto-ignition stabilized flame, and hence, describe the flame as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system. In addition to this, it is highlighted that in the presence of temperature fluctuations, the 2 × 2 matrix can be extended to a 3 × 3 matrix relating the primitive acoustic variables as well as the temperature fluctuations across the flame. It is shown that only taking the FTF is insufficient to fully describe the dynamic behavior of reheat flames.

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Fig. 1

LES geometry and monitoring planes

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Fig. 2

Mesh in vicinity of step

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Fig. 3

Schematic view of the BFS

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Fig. 4

Normalized flow field near the step for the nonreactive simulations: (a) velocity magnitude snapshot and (b) average velocity magnitude field with streamlines

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Fig. 5

Normalized flow field near the step for the reactive simulations: (a) velocity magnitude snapshot with flame position (black line) and (b) average velocity magnitude field with streamlines (thin lines) and mean flame position (bold line)

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Fig. 6

Normalized temperature distribution near the step for the reactive simulations: (a) instantaneous temperature snapshot and (b) average temperature field

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Fig. 11

Reconstruction of the velocity fluctuation downstream of the flame u2′ in the time domain. The velocity extracted from the LES is compared to (i) u2′ from Q˙tot Eq. (10), (ii) u2′ from MISO Eq. (11), and (iii) u2′ from MIMO Eq. (12).

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Fig. 10

Flame transfer matrix from MIMO identification Eq. (3) and from harmonic simulations. The shaded areas show the 75% confidence interval obtained with the bootstrap method.

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Fig. 9

FTFs from miso identification Eq. (2) and from harmonic simulations. The shaded areas show the 75% confidence interval obtained with the bootstrap method.

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Fig. 8

Isothermal temperature transfer function B33 from the LES/SI method (black solid line) and prediction from the advection–diffusion model Eq. (9) (dashed line)

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Fig. 7

Burner transfer matrix from the LES/SI method (black solid line) and prediction from Lζ model Eq. (8) (dashed line)

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Fig. 12

Normalized HRR fluctuation amplitude as a function of the amplitude of the harmonic temperature excitation at Sr = 0.44. The values of the simulated temperature amplitudes are reported in the top x-axis.



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