Research Papers

Reconstruction and Analysis of the Acoustic Transfer Matrix of a Reheat Flame From Large-Eddy Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Mirko Bothien

Ansaldo Energia,
Römerstrasse 36,
Baden CH-5400, Switzerland
e-mail: mirko.bothien@ansaldoenergia.com

Demian Lauper

Ansaldo Energia,
Römerstrasse 36,
Baden CH-5400, Switzerland

Yang Yang, Alessandro Scarpato

Ansaldo Energia,
Römerstrasse 36,
Baden CH-5400, Switzerland

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: CADFEM (Suisse), Aadorf 8355, Switzerland

Manuscript received July 2, 2018; final manuscript received July 23, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021018 (Oct 04, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1413; doi: 10.1115/1.4041151 History: Received July 02, 2018; Revised July 23, 2018

Lean premix technology is widely spread in gas turbine combustion systems, allowing modern power plants to fulfill very stringent emission targets. These systems are, however, also prone to thermoacoustic instabilities, which can limit the engine operating window. The thermoacoustic analysis of a combustor is thus a key element in its development process. An important ingredient of this analysis is the characterization of the flame response to acoustic fluctuations, which is straightforward for lean-premixed flames that are propagation stabilized, since it can be measured atmospherically. Ansaldo Energia's GT26 and GT36 reheat combustion systems feature a unique technology where fuel is injected into a hot gas stream from a first combustor, which is propagation stabilized, and auto-ignites in a sequential combustion chamber. The present study deals with the flame response of mainly auto-ignition stabilized flames to acoustic and temperature fluctuations for which a computational fluid dynamics system identification (SI) approach is chosen. The current paper builds on recent works, which detail and validate a methodology to analyze the dynamic response of an auto-ignition flame to extract the flame transfer function (FTF) using unsteady large-Eddy simulations (LES). In these studies, the flame is assumed to behave as a single-input single-output (SISO) or a multi-input single-output (MISO) system. The analysis conducted in GT2015-42622 qualitatively highlights the important role of temperature and equivalence ratio fluctuations, but these effects are not separated from velocity fluctuations. Hence, this topic is addressed in GT2016-57699, where the flame is treated as a multiparameter system and compressible LES are conducted to extract the frequency-dependent FTF to describe the effects of axial velocity, temperature, equivalence ratio, and pressure fluctuations on the flame response. For lean-premixed flames, a common approach followed in the literature assumes that the acoustic pressure is constant across the flame and that the flame dynamics are governed by the response to velocity perturbations only, i.e., the FTF. However, this is not necessarily the case for reheat flames that are mainly auto-ignition stabilized. Therefore, in this paper, we present the full 2 × 2 transfer matrix of a predominantly auto-ignition stabilized flame, and hence, describe the flame as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system. In addition to this, it is highlighted that in the presence of temperature fluctuations, the 2 × 2 matrix can be extended to a 3 × 3 matrix relating the primitive acoustic variables as well as the temperature fluctuations across the flame. It is shown that only taking the FTF is insufficient to fully describe the dynamic behavior of reheat flames.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Güthe, F. , Hellat, J. , and Flohr, P. , 2009, “ The Reheat Concept: The Proven Pathway to Ultralow Emissions and High Efficiency and Flexibility,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 131(2), p. 021503. [CrossRef]
Düsing, K. M. , Ciani, A. , Benz, U. , Eroglu, A. , and Knapp, K. , 2013, “ Development of GT24 and GT26 (Upgrades 2011) Reheat Combustors Achieving Reduced Emissions and Increased Fuel Flexibility,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95437.
Pennell, D. , Bothien, M. R. , Ciani, A. , Granet, G. , Singla, G. , Thorpe, S. , Wickstroem, A. , Oumejjoud, K. , and Yaquinto, M. , 2017, “ An Introduction to the Ansaldo GT36 Constant Pressure Sequential Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64790.
Paschereit, C. O. , Schuermans, B. , Polifke, W. , and Mattson, O. , 2002, “ Measurement of Transfer Matrices and Source Terms of Premixed Flames,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 124(2), pp. 239–247. [CrossRef]
Bothien, M. , Noiray, N. , and Schuermans, B. , 2015, “ Analysis of Azimuthal Thermo-Acoustic Modes in Annular Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(6), p. 061505.
Noiray, N. , Bothien, M. , and Schuermans, B. , 2011, “ Investigation of Azimuthal Staging Concepts in Annular Gas Turbines,” Combust. Theory Modell., 15(5), pp. 585–606. [CrossRef]
Schuermans, B. , Güthe, F. , Pennell, D. , Guyot, D. , and Paschereit, O. , 2010, “ Thermoacoustic Modeling of a Gas Turbine Using Transfer Functions Measured Under Full Engine Pressure,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(11), p. 111503.
Bellucci, V. , Schuermans, B. , Nowak, D. , Flohr, P. , and Paschereit, C. O. , 2005, “ Thermoacoustic Modeling of a Gas Turbine Combustor Equipped With Acoustic Dampers,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127(2), pp. 372–379. [CrossRef]
Lipatnikov, A. N. , and Chomiak, J. , 2002, “ Turbulent Flame Speed and Thickness: Phenomenology, Evaluation, and Application in Multi-Dimensional Simulations,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 28(1), pp. 1–74. [CrossRef]
Kobayashi, H. , Tamura, T. , Maruta, K. , and Niioka, T. , 1996, “ Burning Velocity of Turbulent Premixed Flames in a High-Pressure Environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 26(1), pp. 389–396. [CrossRef]
Gentemann, A. , Hirsch, C. , Kunze, K. , Kiesewetter, F. , Sattelmayer, T. , and Polifke, W. , 2004, “ Validation of Flame Transfer Function Reconstruction for Perfectly Premixed Swirl Flames,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53776.
Huber, A. , and Polifke, W. , 2009, “ Dynamics of Practical Premixed Flames—Part I: Model Structure and Identification,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1(2), pp. 199–228. [CrossRef]
Huber, A. , and Polifke, W. , 2009, “ Dynamics of Practical Premixed Flames—Part II: Identification and Interpretation of CFD Data,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dyn., 1(2), pp. 229–249. [CrossRef]
Föller, S. , and Polifke, W. , 2010, “ Determination of Acoustic Transfer Matrices Via Large Eddy Simulation and System Identification,” AIAA Paper No. 2010-3998.
Tay-Wo-Chong, L. , Scarpato, A. , and Polifke, W. , 2017, “ LES Combustion Model With Stretch and Heat Loss Effects for Prediction of Premix Flame Characteristics and Dynamics,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-63357.
Yang, Y. , Noiray, N. , Scarpato, A. , Schulz, O. , Düsing, M. , and Bothien, M. , 2015, “ Numerical Analysis of the Dynamic Flame Response in Alstom Reheat Combustion Systems,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42622.
Scarpato, A. , Zander, L. , Kulkarni, R. , and Schuermans, B. , 2016, “ Identification of Multi-Parameter Flame Transfer Function for a Reheat Combustor,” ASME Paper no. GT2016-57699.
Ni, A. , Polifke, W. , and Joos, F. , 2000, “ Ignition Delay Time Modulation as a Contribution to Thermo-Acoustic Instability in Sequential Combustion,” ASME paper no. 2000-GT-0103.
Zellhuber, M. , 2013, “ High Frequency Response of Auto-Ignition and Heat Release to Acoustic Perturbations,” Ph.D. thesis, Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, TU München, München, Germany.
Zellhuber, M. , Schuermans, B. , and Polifke, W. , 2014, “ Impact of Acoustic Pressure on Autoignition and Heat Release,” Combust. Theory Modell., 18(1), pp. 1–31. [CrossRef]
Schulz, O. , and Noiray, N. , 2016, “ Autoignition Flame Dynamics in Sequential Combustors,” Thermoacoustic Instabilities in Gas Turbines and Rocket Engines: Industry Meets Academia, Paper No. GTRE-002.
Biswas, G. , Breuer, M. , and Durst, F. , 2004, “ Backward-Facing Step Flows for Various Expansion Ratios at Low and Moderate Reynolds Numbers,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 126(3), pp. 362–374. [CrossRef]
Kulkarni, R. , Bunkute, B. , Biagioli, F. , Düsing, M. , and Polifke, W. , 2014, “ Large Eddy Simulation of ALSTOM Reheat Combustor Using Tabulated Chemistry and Stochastic Fields-Combustion Model,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26053.
Healy, D. , Kalitan, D. M. , Aul, C. J. , Petersen, E. L. , Bourque, G. , and Curran, H. J. , 2010, “ Oxidation of C1-C5 Alkane Quinternary Natural Gas Mixtures at High Pressures,” Energy Fuels, 24(3), pp. 1521–1528. [CrossRef]
Celik, I. , Klein, M. , and Janicka, J. , 2009, “ Assessment Measures for Engineering LES Applications,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 131(3), p. 031102.
Kopitz, J. , Bröcker, E. , and Polifke, W. , 2005, “ Characteristics-Based Filter for Identification of Planar Acoustic Waves in Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Compressible Flow,” 12th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11–14, pp. 11–14.
Paschereit, C. O. , and Polifke, W. , 1998, “ Investigation of the Thermoacoustic Characteristics of a Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Burner,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-582.
Moeck, J. P. , Bothien, M. R. , Schimek, S. , Lacarelle, A. , and Paschereit, C. O. , 2008, “ Subcritical Thermoacoustic Instabilities in a Premixed Combustor,” AIAA Paper No. 2008-2946 https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/6.2008-2946.
Schuermans, B. , Bellucci, V. , Güthe, F. , Meili, F. , Flohr, P. , and Paschereit, C. O. , 2004, “ A Detailed Analysis of Thermoacoustic Interaction Mechanisms in a Turbulent Premixed Flame,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53831.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

LES geometry and monitoring planes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Mesh in vicinity of step

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the BFS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Normalized flow field near the step for the nonreactive simulations: (a) velocity magnitude snapshot and (b) average velocity magnitude field with streamlines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Normalized flow field near the step for the reactive simulations: (a) velocity magnitude snapshot with flame position (black line) and (b) average velocity magnitude field with streamlines (thin lines) and mean flame position (bold line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Normalized temperature distribution near the step for the reactive simulations: (a) instantaneous temperature snapshot and (b) average temperature field

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Burner transfer matrix from the LES/SI method (black solid line) and prediction from Lζ model Eq. (8) (dashed line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Isothermal temperature transfer function B33 from the LES/SI method (black solid line) and prediction from the advection–diffusion model Eq. (9) (dashed line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

FTFs from miso identification Eq. (2) and from harmonic simulations. The shaded areas show the 75% confidence interval obtained with the bootstrap method.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Flame transfer matrix from MIMO identification Eq. (3) and from harmonic simulations. The shaded areas show the 75% confidence interval obtained with the bootstrap method.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Reconstruction of the velocity fluctuation downstream of the flame u2′ in the time domain. The velocity extracted from the LES is compared to (i) u2′ from Q˙tot Eq. (10), (ii) u2′ from MISO Eq. (11), and (iii) u2′ from MIMO Eq. (12).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Normalized HRR fluctuation amplitude as a function of the amplitude of the harmonic temperature excitation at Sr = 0.44. The values of the simulated temperature amplitudes are reported in the top x-axis.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In