Research Papers

Study on the Intake Valve Close Timing Misalignment Between the Maximum Volume Efficiency and the None Backflow on a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Fushui Liu

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China;
Beijing Electric Vehicle Collaborative
Innovation Center,
Beijing 100081, China

Zhongjie Shi, Yang Hua, Ning Kang, Zheng Zhang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China

Yikai Li

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: liyikai@bit.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 27, 2017; final manuscript received July 25, 2018; published online October 15, 2018. Assoc. Editor: David L.S. Hung.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(2), 021026 (Oct 15, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1581; doi: 10.1115/1.4041169 History: Received October 27, 2017; Revised July 25, 2018

Since the intake valve close timing (IVC) directly determines the amount of displacement backflow and the amount of fresh charge trapped in the cylinder, optimizing the IVC is important to improve the performance of the diesel engine. In this paper, the relationship between the IVC and the displacement backflow of the cylinder at the high-speed condition was studied by establishing a one-dimensional (1D) gas dynamic model of a single-cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the forward airflow mass of intake and the backflow increase as the IVC retards, and the airflow mass trapped in cylinder increases at first and then decreases. It is interesting to find that the backflow does not equal zero when the air mass trapped in cylinder is the largest, which is different from the traditional optimizing strategy on the IVC. That is to say, there exists a misalignment between the maximum-volume-efficiency IVC and the none-backflow IVC. To further verify this interesting misalignment, the airflow characteristics at the optimized IVC condition are studied by establishing a three-dimensional (3D) simulation. It is found that the appearance of backflow is a gradual process, and there exists an overall backflow when the engine volume efficiency reaches its maximum value. In addition, the misalignment is reduced as the mean valve-closing velocity increases. The misalignment equals to 0 only if the mean valve-closing velocity approaches infinity.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Torregrosa, A. J. , Galindo, J. , Guardiola, C. , and Varnier, O. , 2011, “ Combined Experimental and Modeling Methodology for Intake Line Evaluation in Turbocharged Diesel Engines,” Int. J. Automot. Technol., 12(3), pp. 359–367. [CrossRef]
Pulkrabek, W. W. , 1997, Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Tim, L. , Methley, I. , Ulf, R. , and Thomas, K. , 2000, “ The Application of Variable Event Valve Timing to a Modern Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-1229.
Parvate-Patil, G. B. , Hong, H. , and Gordon, B. , 2004, “ Analysis of Variable Valve Timing Events and Their Effects on Single Cylinder Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-2965.
Benajes, J. , Molina, S. , Novella, R. , and Riesco, M. , 2008, “ Improving Pollutant Emissions in Diesel Engines for Heavy-Duty Transportation Using Retarded Intake Valve Closing Strategies,” Int. J. Automot. Technol., 9(3), pp. 257–265. [CrossRef]
Benajes, J. , Molina, S. , Martin, J. , and Novella, R. , 2009, “ Effect of Advancing the Closing Angle of the Intake Valves on Diffusion-Controlled Combustion in a HD Diesel Engine,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(10), pp. 1947–1954. [CrossRef]
Peng, Z. J. , and Jia, M. , 2009, “ Full Engine Cycle CFD Investigation of Effects of Variable Intake Valve Closing on Diesel PCCI Combustion and Emissions,” Energy Fuel, 23(12), pp. 5855–5864. [CrossRef]
Patychuk, B. , Wu, N. , Gordon, M. C. , Philip, H. , and Sandeep, M. , 2015, “ Intake and Exhaust Valve Timing Control on a Heavy-Duty, Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-0864.
Cheng, C.-O. , Cheng, W. K. , Heywood, J. B. , Maroteaux, D. , and Collings, N. , 1991, “ Intake Port Phenomena in a Spark-Ignition Engine at Part Load,” SAE Trans. , 100(3), pp. 1839–1851.
Bauer, W. , Heywood, J. B. , Avanessian, O. , and Chu, D. , 1996, “ Flow Characteristics in Intake Port of Spark Ignition Engine Investigated by CFD and Transient Gas Temperature Measurement,” SAE Paper No. 961997.
Clenci, A. C. , Iorga-Simăn, V. , Deligant, M. , Podevin, P. , Descombes, G. , and Niculescu, R. , 2014, “ A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Study on the Effects of Operating an Engine With Low Intake Valve Lift at Idle Corresponding Speed,” Energy, 71, pp. 202–217. [CrossRef]
Ashkezari, A. Z. , Nezhad, A. H. , and Farahat, S. , 2016, “ Reduction of Pollutant Emissions by Developing a Variable Valve Timing System,” Environ. Prog. Sustainable Energy, 35(5), pp. 1430–1440. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. , Park, S. S. , and Bae, C. , 2017, “ The Effects of Late Intake Valve Closing and Different Cam Profiles on the In-Cylinder Flow Field and the Combustion Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D: J. Automobile Eng., 232(7), pp. 853–865. [CrossRef]
Lanzanova, T. , Nora, M. D. , and Zhao, H. , 2017, “ Investigation of Early and Late Intake Valve Closure Strategies for Load Control in a Spark Ignition Ethanol Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2017-01-0643.
Zammit, J. P. , McGhee, M. J. , Shayler, P. J. , Law, T. , and Pegg, I. , 2015, “ The Effects of Early Inlet Valve Closing and Cylinder Disablement on Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” Energy, 79, pp. 100–110. [CrossRef]
Jia, M. , Li, Y. , Xie, M. , and Wang, T. , 2013, “ Numerical Evaluation of the Potential of Late Intake Valve Closing Strategy for Diesel PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) Engine in a Wide Speed and Load Range,” Energy, 51, pp. 203–215. [CrossRef]
Liu, F. , Kang, N. , Li, Y. , and Wu, Q. , 2018, “ Experimental Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of a Droplet Under Sinusoidal Inertial Force,” Fuel, 226, pp. 156–162. [CrossRef]
Kang, K. Y. , and Baek, J. H. , 1998, “ Turbulence Characteristics of Tumble Flow in a Four-Valve Engine,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 18(3), pp. 231–243. [CrossRef]
Rabault, J. , Vernet, J. A. , Lindgren, B. , and Alfredsson, P. H. , 2016, “ A Study Using PIV of the Intake Flow in a Diesel Engine Cylinder,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 62, pp. 56–67. [CrossRef]
Varol, Y. , Oztop, H. F. , Firat, M. , and Koca, A. , 2010, “ CFD Modeling of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Inside a Pent-Roof Type Combustion Chamber Using Dynamic Model,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(9), pp. 1366–1375. [CrossRef]
Aleiferis, P. G. , Behringer, M. K. , and Malcolm, J. S. , 2017, “ Integral Length Scales and Time Scales of Turbulence in an Optical Spark-Ignition Engine,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 98(2), pp. 523–577. [CrossRef]
Nigro, A. , Algieri, A. , De Bartolo, C. , and Bova, S. , 2017, “ Fluid Dynamic Investigation of Innovative Intake Strategies for Multivalve Internal Combustion Engines,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 123, pp. 297–310. [CrossRef]
Yang, X. F. , Kuo, T. W. , Guralp, O. , Grover, R. O. , and Najt, P. , 2017, “ In-Cylinder Flow Correlations Between Steady Flow Bench and Motored Engine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 139(7), p. 072802. [CrossRef]
Li, X. , Gao, H. , Zhao, L. , Zhang, Z. , He, X. , and Liu, F. , 2016, “ Combustion and Emission Performance of a Split Injection Diesel Engine in a Double Swirl Combustion System,” Energy, 114, pp. 1135–1146. [CrossRef]
Lee, K. , Yoon, M. , and Sunwoo, M. , 2008, “ A Study on Pegging Methods for Noisy Cylinder Pressure Signal,” Control Eng. Pract., 16(8), pp. 922–929. [CrossRef]
Brunt, M. F. J. , and Pond, C. R. , 1997, “ Evaluation of Techniques for Absolute Cylinder Pressure Correction,” SAE Paper No. 970036.
Gama Technologies, 2013, “GT-SUITE Version 7.4.0 User's Manual,” Gama Technologies, Westmont, IL.
Chen, S. K. , and Flynn, P. F. , 1965, “ Development of a Single Cylinder Compression Ignition Research Engine,” SAE Paper No. 650733.
Convergent Science, 2014, “CONVERGE Version 2.2 Theory Manual,” Convergent Science, Madison, WI.
Senecal, P. K. , Richards, K. J. , Pomraning, E. , Yang, T. , Dai, M. Z. , McDavid, R. M. , Patterson, M. A. , Hou, S. , and Shethaji, T. , 2007, “ A New Parallel Cut-Cell Cartesian CFD Code for Rapid Grid Generation Applied to In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulations,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0159.
Yang, X. F. , Keum, S. , and Kuo, T. W. , 2016, “ Effect of Valve Opening/Closing Setup on Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of Engine Flows,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(8), p. 081503. [CrossRef]
Kesgin, U. , 2005, “ Study on the Design of Inlet and Exhaust System of a Stationary Internal Combustion Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage, 46(13–14), pp. 2258–2287. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. T. , and Li, R. X. , 2009, “ A CFD Approach for Studying Valve Timing of ICEngines,” China Intern. Combust. Engine Eng., 30(4), pp. 52–56,62.
Zhang, L. , Shang, H. , Yuan, Z. , Ma, W. , Fu, Q. , and Chen, M. , 2012, “ Numerical Simulation on Phasing Strategy for a Gasoline Engine With Continuously Variable Intake Camshaft,” J. Chongqing Univ., 35(5), pp. 14–21.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Statistical analysis of the pressure traces. (a) the BMEPs and the PMEPs for the test 100 cycles and the averaged cycle and (b) the intake minimum pressures and exhaust maximum pressures for the test 100 cycles and the averaged cycle.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The 1D simulation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The comparison of in-cylinder pressure between simulation and experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Calibration of the gas exchange process for the 1D model (intake pressure: 3.5 bar and 2500 rpm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Valve profiles for various IVC strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Computational meshes and sensitivity analysis results of the base grid. (a) Computational domain and mesh model and (b) in-cylinder pressure results with different base grid (2500 rpm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Valve profile of CFD simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Volume efficiency as a function of IVC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The PV diagram of different IVC cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The air velocity at the intake valve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Volume efficiency and the end velocity as a function of IVC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The mass flow rate across the intake valves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The trace of in-cylinder pressures and the intake manifold pressures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Forward mass/revers mass/trapped mass as a function of IVC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The position of plane clip and cylindrical clip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Three-dimensional results of the IVC596 case: (a) evolution of the in-plane velocity magnitude and direction and (b) evolution of the cylindrical clip normal velocity magnitude and direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Forward mass/revers mass/trapped mass as a function of IVC for different valve profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

The misalignments as a function of engine speeds for different valve lift profiles



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In