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Research Papers

Large Eddy Simulation of a Premixed Flame in Hot Vitiated Crossflow With Analytically Reduced Chemistry

[+] Author and Article Information
Oliver Schulz

CAPS Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical and
Process Engineering,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: oschulz@ethz.ch

Nicolas Noiray

CAPS Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical and
Process Engineering,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: noirayn@ethz.ch

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received July 26, 2018; final manuscript received July 26, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(3), 031014 (Oct 04, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1522; doi: 10.1115/1.4041205 History: Received July 26, 2018; Revised July 26, 2018

This numerical study deals with a premixed ethylene–air jet at 300 K injected into a hot vitiated crossflow at 1500 K and atmospheric pressure. The reactive jet in crossflow (RJICF) was simulated with compressible 3D large eddy simulations (LES) with an analytically reduced chemistry (ARC) mechanism and the dynamic thickened flame (DTF) model. ARC enables simulations of mixed combustion modes, such as autoignition and flame propagation, that are both present in this RJICF. 0D and 1D simulations provide a comparison with excellent agreement between ARC and detailed chemistry in terms of autoignition time and laminar flame speed. The effect of the DTF model on autoignition was investigated for varying species compositions and mesh sizes. Comparisons between LES and experiments are in good agreement for average velocity distributions and jet trajectories; LES remarkably capture experimentally observed flame dynamics. An analysis of the simulated RJICF shows that the leeward propagating flame has a stable flame root close to the jet exit. The lifted windward flame, on the contrary, is anchored in an intermittent fashion due to autoignition flame stabilization. The windward flame base convects downstream and is “brought back” by autoignition alternately. These autoignition events occur close to a thin layer that is associated with radical build-up and that stretches down to the jet exit.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Computational mesh, boundary conditions, and dimensions for the 3D reactive jet in crossflow LES. Experimental configuration was introduced and investigated in Refs. [911]. Mesh overlaid with instantaneous heat release rate q˙ contour. The total number of cells is 11 × 106. 3D rendering of isosurfaces of heat release rate q˙, hydroxide OH mass fraction, and Q-criterion [36] Q visualizing vortical structures.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison between detailed chemistry [38] and analytically reduced chemistry (ARC_18_C2H4 NARA) at 1 bar. (a) shows autoignition times τAI obtained from 0D reactor simulations with Cantera [37]. Mixture fraction Z describes mixing between hot crossflow at 1500 K (Z = 0) and the cold premixed ethylene-air jet at 300 K (Z = 1). Two additional axes show equivalence ratio ϕ and mixing temperature. (b) shows laminar flame speeds sL obtained from 1D flame simulations using Cantera; fresh gas temperature at 300 K. (c) shows temperature (left) and species mass fraction (right) profiles for a 0D reactor simulation at most reactive Z (ϕ ≈ 0.55). Symbols and lines show ARC_18_C2H4 NARA and detailed chemistry.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The effect of the DTF model on the onset of autoignition. Top: autoignition time τAI normalized by autoignition time obtained on a flame-resolved grid (right vertical dashed line) τAI, resolved for three mixture fractions Z. Bottom: thickening factors F applied by the DTF model. Results obtained by 0D reactor simulations (symbols) with AVBP. The left vertical dashed line shows grid resolution on the windward side of the RJICF.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Heat release rate q˙ contour overlaid with isoline at thickening factor F = 3. This highlights regions where the DTF model applies flame thickening.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) contour of total kinetic energy that is composed of the resolved part of the turbulent kinetic energy kre and the modeled subgrid energy ksgs. (b) the ratio between kre and total kinetic energy.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental [11] (a) and LES (b) contours of velocity magnitude |u|=u x2+u y2 in the central plane for nonreactive (left) and reactive (right) jets in crossflow. Solid lines show streamlines originating at the windward jet edge, the jet center, and the leeward jet edge. (c) shows velocity magnitude |u y| along normalized y-coordinate of jet-center trajectory. Jet-to-crossflow momentum ratio J = 8.7.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between experiments (left) and LES (right). Instantaneous contours of velocity magnitude |u|=u x2+u y2, vorticity ωz, CH2O, OH, and the product of the two OH × CH2O, used as a flame front marker in the experiments [911]. OH, CH2O and OH×CH2O from experiments obtained with PLIF; species from LES in mass fraction. Isolines at OH × CH2O = 3 × 10−8 show flame front. Jet-to-crossflow momentum ratio J = 5.2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

An instantaneous sequence in a 2D xy-cut through jet centerline, visualizing from top to bottom: OH mass fraction, temperature T, and velocity magnitude |u|=u x2+u y2. Flame visualized by heat release rate q˙ isoline at 1.6 × 109 W/m3. The time between snapshots is Δt = 0.3 ms. Jet-to-crossflow momentum ratio J = 8.7.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Time evolution of windward and leeward flame heights yflame. Dashed lines show average yflame. The inset shows an instantaneous snapshot of OH contour, the flame front highlighted by isolines, and the two flame bases. The straight solid line shows autoignition length computed with τAI,mr at Zmr and the jet bulk velocity. J = 8.7.

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