0
Research Papers

High Frequency Measurement of Temperature and Composition Spots With LITGS

[+] Author and Article Information
Francesca De Domenico

Department of Engineering,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK
e-mail: fd314@cam.ac.uk

Priyav Shah, Benjamin A. O. Williams

Department of Engineering,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX1 2JD, UK

Steven M. Lowe, Luming Fan, Simone Hochgreb

Department of Engineering,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK

Paul Ewart

Department of Physics,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX1 2JD, UK

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received August 7, 2018; published online October 4, 2018. Editor: Jerzy T. Sawicki.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 141(3), 031003 (Oct 04, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1380; doi: 10.1115/1.4041275 History: Received June 26, 2018; Revised August 07, 2018

Temperature and composition spots in a turbulent flow are detected and time-resolved using laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy (LITGS). A 355 nm wavelength particle image velocimetry laser is operated at 0.5–1 kHz to generate the thermal grating using biacetyl as an absorber in trace amounts. In an open laminar jet, a feasibility study shows that small (≃ 3%) fluctuations in the mean flow properties are well captured with LITGS. However, corrections of the mean flow properties by the presence of the trace biacetyl are necessary to properly capture the fluctuations. The actual density and temperature variation in the flow are determined using a calibration procedure validated using a laminar jet flow. Finally, traveling entropy and composition spots are directly measured at different locations along a quartz tube, obtaining good agreement with expected values. This study demonstrates that LITGS can be used as a technique to obtain instantaneous, unsteady temperature and density variations in a combustion chamber, requiring only limited optical access.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Chu, B. T. , and Kovasznay, L. C. G. , 1958, “ Non-Linear Interactions in a Viscous Heat-Conducting Compressible Gas,” J. Fluid Mech., 3(5), pp. 494–514. [CrossRef]
Morfey, C. L. , 1973, “ Amplification of Aerodynamic Noise by Convection Flow Inhomogeneities,” J. Sound Vib., 31(4), pp. 391–397. [CrossRef]
Ffowcs Williams, J. E. , and Howe, M. S. , 1975, “ The Generation of Sound by Density Inhomogeneities in Low Mach Number Nozzle Flows,” J. Fluid Mech., 70(3), pp. 605–622. [CrossRef]
Marble, F. , and Candel, S. , 1977, “ Acoustic Disturbance From Gas Non-Uniformities Convected Through a Nozzle,” J. Sound Vib., 55(2), pp. 225–243. [CrossRef]
Cumpsty, N. A. , 1979, “ Jet Engine Combustion Noise: Pressure, Entropy and Vorticity Perturbations Produced by Unsteady Combustion or Heat Addition,” J. Sound Vib., 66(4), pp. 527–544. [CrossRef]
Howe, M. S. , 2010, “ Indirect Combustion Noise,” J. Fluid Mech., 659, pp. 267–288. [CrossRef]
Magri, L. , O'Brien, J. , and Ihme, M. , 2016, “ Compositional Inhomogeneities as a Source of Indirect Combustion Noise,” J. Fluid Mech., 799, p. R4. [CrossRef]
Polifke, W. , Paschereit, C. O. , and Döbbeling, K. , 2001, “ Constructive and Destructive Interference of Acoustic and Entropy Waves in a Premixed Combustor With a Choked Exit,” J. Acoust. Vib., 6(3), pp. 135–146.
Goh, C. S. , and Morgans, A. S. , 2013, “ The Influence of Entropy Waves on the Thermoacoustic Stability of a Model Combustor,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 185(2), pp. 249–268. [CrossRef]
Hochgreb, S. , Dennis, D. , Ayranci, I. , Bainbridge, W. , and Cant, S. , 2013, “ Forced and Self-Excited Instabilities From Lean Premixed, Liquid-Fuelled Aeroengine Injectors at High Pressures and Temperatures,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95311.
Dowling, A. P. , and Mahmoudi, Y. , 2015, “ Combustion Noise,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 35(1), pp. 65–100. [CrossRef]
Ihme, M. , 2017, “ Combustion and Engine-Core Noise,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 49(1), pp. 277–310. [CrossRef]
Dowling, A. P. , and Stow, S. R. , 2003, “ Acoustic Analysis of Gad Turbine Combustors,” J. Propul. Power, 19(5), pp. 751–764. [CrossRef]
Goh, C. S. , and Morgans, A. S. , 2011, “ Phase Prediction of the Response of Choked Nozzles to Entropy and Acoustic Disturbances,” J. Sound Vib., 330(21), pp. 5184–5198. [CrossRef]
Moase, W. , Brear, M. , and Manzie, C. , 2007, “ The Forced Response of Choked Nozzles and Supersonic Diffusers,” J. Fluid Mech., 585, pp. 281–304. [CrossRef]
Duran, I. , and Moreau, S. , 2013, “ Solution of the Quasi One-Dimensional Linearized Euler Equations Using Flow Invariants and the Magnus Expansion,” J. Fluid Mech., 723, pp. 190–231. [CrossRef]
Motheau, E. , Nicoud, F. , Mery, Y. , and Poinsot, T. , 2013, “ Analysis and Modelling of Entropy Modes in a Realistic Aeronautical Gas Turbine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(9), p. 092602. [CrossRef]
Bohn, M. S. , 1976, “ Noise Produced by the Interaction of Acoustic Waves and Entropy Waves With High Speed Nozzle Flows,” Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Bake, F. , Richter, C. , Mühlbauer, B. , Kings, N. , Röhle, I. , Thiele, F. , and Noll, B. , 2009, “ The Entropy Wave Generator (EWG): A Reference Case on Entropy Noise,” J. Sound Vib., 326(3–5), pp. 574–598. [CrossRef]
Gaetani, P. , Persico, G. , and Spinelli, A. , 2015, “ Entropy Wave Generator for Indirect Combustion Noise in a High-Pressure Turbine,” 11th European Conference on Turbomachinery Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics, Madrid, Spain, Mar. 23–25.
Knobloch, K. , Werner, T. , and Bake, F. , 2015, “ Noise Generation in Hot Nozzle Flow,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43702.
Giusti, A. , Worth, N. A. , Mastorakos, E. , and Dowling, A. P. , 2017, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation Into the Propagation of Entropy Waves,” AIAA J., 55(2), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef]
De Domenico, F. , Rolland, E. O. , and Hochgreb, S. , 2017, “ Detection of Direct and Indirect Noise Generated by Synthetic Hot Spots in a Duct,” J. Sound Vib., 394, pp. 220–236. [CrossRef]
Rolland, E. O. , De Domenico, F. , and Hochgreb, S. , 2017, “ Theory and Application of Reverberated Direct and Indirect Noise,” J. Fluid Mech., 819, pp. 435–464. [CrossRef]
Tao, W. , Schuller, T. , Huet, M. , and Richecoeur, F. , 2017, “ Coherent Entropy Induced and Acoustic Noise Separation in Compact Nozzles,” J. Sound Vib., 394, pp. 237–255. [CrossRef]
Wassmer, D. , Schuermans, B. , Paschereit, C. O. , and Moeck, J. P. , 2017, “ Measurement and Modeling of the Generation and the Transport of Entropy Waves in a Model Gas Turbine Combustor,” Int. J. Spray Combust. Dynamics, 9(4), pp. 299–309. [CrossRef]
Eckbreth, A. , 1996, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, Vol. 3, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group,, Boca Raton, FL.
Hanson, R. K. , and Davidson, D. F. , 2014, “ Recent Advances in Laser Absorption and Shock Tube Methods for Studies of Combustion Chemistry,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 44, pp. 103–114. [CrossRef]
Rausch, A. , Fischer, A. , Konle, H. , Gaertlein, A. , Nitsch, S. , Knobloch, K. , Bake, F. , and Rohle, I. , 2011, “ Measurements of Density Pulsations in the Outlet Nozzle of a Combustion Chamber by Rayleigh-Scattering Searching Entropy Waves,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(3), p. 031601. [CrossRef]
Roy, S. , Gord, J. R. , and Patnaik, A. K. , 2010, “ Recent Advances in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Spectroscopy: Fundamental Developments and Applications in Reacting Flows,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 36(2), pp. 280–306. [CrossRef]
Eichler, H. , Gunter, P. , and Pohl, D. , 1986, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Cummings, E. B. , 1994, “ Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics: Simple Accurate Gas Measurements,” Opt. Lett., 19(17), pp. 1361–1363. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Paul, P. H. , Farrow, R. L. , and Danehy, P. M. , 1995, “ Gas-Phase Thermal Contributions to Four-Wave Mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., 12(3), pp. 384–392. [CrossRef]
Stampanoni-Panariello, A. , Kozlov, D. N. , Radi, P. P. , and Hemmerling, B. , 2005, “ Gas Phase Diagnostics by Laser-Induced Gratings—I: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B, 81(1), pp. 101–111.
Latzel, H. , Dreizler, A. , Dreier, T. , Heinze, J. , Dillmann, M. , Stricker, W. , Lloyd, G. M. , and Ewart, P. , 1998, “ Thermal Grating and Broadband Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy of OH in High-Pressure Flames,” Appl. Phys. B, 673(5), pp. 667–673. [CrossRef]
Walker, D. J. W. , Williams, R. B. , and Ewart, P. , 1998, “ Thermal Grating Velocimetry,” Opt. Lett., 23(16), pp. 1316–1318. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stevens, R. , and Ewart, P. , 2004, “ Single-Shot Measurement of Temperature and Pressure Using Laser-Induced Thermal Gratings With a Long Probe Pulse,” Appl. Phys. B, 117(1), pp. 111–117. [CrossRef]
Sander, T. , Altenhöfer, P. , and Mundt, C. , 2014, “ Development of Laser-Induced Grating Spectroscopy for Application in Shock Tunnels,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 28(1), pp. 27–31. [CrossRef]
Williams, B. , and Ewart, P. , 2012, “ Photophysical Effects on Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy of Toluene and Acetone,” Chem. Phys. Lett., 546, pp. 40–46. [CrossRef]
Förster, F. J. , Crua, C. , Davy, M. , and Ewart, P. , 2017, “ Time Resolved Gas Thermometry by Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy With a High Repetition Rate Laser System,” Exp. Fluids, 58(7), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Cummings, E. B. , Leyva, I. A. , and Hornung, H. G. , 1995, “ Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics (LITA) Signals From Finite Beams,” Appl. Opt., 34(18), pp. 3290–3302. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kiefer, J. , Kozlov, D. N. , Seeger, T. , and Leipertz, A. , 2008, “ Local Fuel Concentration Measurements for Mixture Formation Diagnostics Using Diffraction by Laser-Induced Gratings in Comparison to Spontaneous Raman Scattering,” J. Raman Spectrosc., 39(6), pp. 711–721. [CrossRef]
Eckbreth, A. C. , and Anderson, T. J. , 1986, “ Simultaneous Rotational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy and Coherent Stokes Raman Spectroscopy With Arbitrary pump-Stokes Spectral Separation,” Opt. Lett., 11(8), pp. 496–498. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Willman, C. , and Ewart, P. , 2016, “ Multipoint Temperature Measurements in Gas Flows Using 1 D Laser Induced Grating Scattering,” Exp. Fluids, 57(12), pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Lowe, S. M. , 2017, “ Quantitative Measurements of Temperature Using Laser-Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy in Reacting and Non-Reacting Flows,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Neely, W. , and Hall, T. , 1972, “ Vapor Pressure of Biacetyl,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 17(3), pp. 294–295. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the experiment. PL: 355 nm pulsed edgewave laser; CWL: continuous solid state laser; PD: photodiode; PMT: photomultiplier; HRM: highly reflective mirror; CLt: converging lens for telescopic arrangement; BS: beam splitter; BD: beam dump; CL: crossing lens; DC: delay compensator plate.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Left: schematic of the jet experiment setup. Right: schematic of the entropy wave generator with the optical access window.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Ensemble averaged LITGS time traces obtained by increasing the dilution ratio δ=m˙tot/m˙b; (b) frequency peaks for each dilution ratio, normalized by the frequency at zero dilution. Solid line experimental data; dashed lines: values predicted for a given molar concentration of saturated undiluted biacetyl Xv. Straight line: normalised LITGS frequency for Xb = 0 (no biacetyl in the mean flow).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Ensemble-averaged litgs signals acquired in a jet of biacetyl-saturated air, Argon, Carbon dioxide, and Helium. Inset: zoom on helium signal. (b) Corresponding Fourier Transform of the signals. Inset: ratio between the peak frequencies obtained with different gases, normalized by that with air.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(Left) Measured mean molar concentrations in a jet of air of CO2 (dots) and Argon (green diamonds) and (right) mean density variations using LITGS, relatively to the expected concentrations based on dilution ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Measured temperature rise from ambient using LITGS, plotted against the thermocouple measurements. Dashed line: thermocouple measurements in the pure air jet, magenta dots: litgs measurement in the air and biacetyl jet, blue dots: equivalent temperature dots: LITGS measurement in the air and biacetyl jet, triangles: equivalent temperature increase in the pure air jet from the LITGS measurements.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Normalized time-resolved frequency variation obtained from LITGS measurements in a laminar jet pulsated with a secondary gas, (b) corresponding time-resolved molar fraction of the pulsated gas, and (c) corresponding relative measured density variation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Detection of composition spots (from left to right column: CO2, Ar, hHe) at five locations along the quartz tube. Injection pulse frequency: 1 Hz, duty cycle: 20%. Rows: (1) time-resolved LITGS traces (peak frequency); (2) time-resolved normalized density variations, (3) ensemble-averaged (30 pulses) LITGS traces (frequency variation from the mean); (4) ensemble-averaged (30 pulses) normalized density variations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Measured time-resolved temperature fluctuations: (a) frequency; (b) temperature deviation from initial value, (c) averaged frequency variation, (d) ensemble-averaged temperature obtained with LITGS (circles) and with anemometer and thermocouples (lines) from Ref. [23]

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In